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논문

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Infrared observations of the flaring maser source G358.93-0.03: SOFIA confirms an accretion burst from a massive young stellar object
  • B. Stecklum; 김기태; Y. Yonekura;
  • 2021-02-01
  • ASTRONOMY & ASTROPHYSICS 646 : A161-1~A161-21
Context. Class II methanol masers are signposts of massive young stellar objects (MYSOs). Recent evidence shows that flares of these masers are driven by MYSO accretion bursts. Thus, maser monitoring can be used to identify such bursts which are hard to dis- cover otherwise. Infrared observations reveal burst-induced changes in the spectral energy distribution (first and foremost a luminosity increase), which provide valuable information on a very intense phase of high-mass star formation. Aims. In mid-January 2019, flaring of the 6.7 GHz CH3 OH maser (hereafter maser) of the MYSO G358.93-0.03 (hereafter G358) was reported. The international maser community initiated an extensive observational campaign which revealed extraordinary maser activity and yielded the detection of numerous new masering transitions. Interferometric imaging with the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array and the Submillimeter Array resolved the maser emitting core of the star forming region and proved the association of the masers with the brightest continuum source (MM1), which hosts a hot molecular core. These observations, however, failed to detect a significant rise in the (sub)millimeter dust continuum emission. Therefore, we performed near-infrared (NIR) and far-infrared (FIR) observations to prove or disprove whether the CH3 OH flare was driven by an accretion burst. Methods. NIR imaging with the Gamma-Ray Burst Optical/Near-infrared Detector has been acquired and integral-field spectroscopy with the Field-Imaging Far-Infrared Line Spectrometer (FIFI-LS) aboard the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) was carried out on two occasions to detect possible counterparts to the (sub)millimeter sources and compare their photometry to archival measurements. The comparison of pre-burst and burst spectral energy distributions is of crucial importance to judge whether a substantial luminosity increase, caused by an accretion burst, is present and if it triggered the mas