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[IAU Open Astronomy Schools 운영본부 발신 메세지] We would like to take this opportunity to invite all of you to join the Eratosthenes Experiment 2019, another project organized in the framework of IAU100. The experiment involves hundreds of schools around the globe, recreating the famous experiment performed 2200 years ago that first measured the size of our planet. Please help us spreading this unique opportunity to engage your local schools with fellow students around the world. Registration is free! The experiments will be carried on the upcoming equinox (March 21st). Visit https://eratosthenes.ea.gr/ for more information. IAU100 프로젝트인 2019 에라토스테네스 실험(the Eratosthenes Experiment 2019)에 여러분을 초대합니다. 이 실험에는 전 세계 수백 개의 학교가 참여하여 2,200년 전 우리 행성의 크기를 처음으로 측정했던 유명한 실험을 재현하게됩니다. 이 특별한 기회를 놓치지마시길 바랍니다. 2019년 실험은 3월 21일에 실시됩니다. 등록은 무료입니다. 자세한 내용은 https://eratosthenes.ea.gr/을 참조해주십시오. 2018년 9월 에라토스테네스 사진 콘테스트에는 26개 학교 및 기관들이 참가하여 실험에 참여하는 모습을 담은 사진을 제출했었습니다. (붙임 사진 참조)
IAU에서는 '외계행성 명명' 프로젝트를 시작합니다. 한국에서의 참여방식은 추후 공지하겠습니다. [Communications] To help the steering committee effectively keep track of all the proposals and messages, all national committees should signup on the project management platform “basecamp”. Please address all enquiries, submission of proposals and send final result under the specific national committee discussion thread. Instructions will be provided to the NOCs later. Besides the basecamp, the project email is email@example.com [Steering Committee] The Steering Committee is the IAU body that is responsible for the IAU100 NameExoWorlds project, oversees and ratify all national proposals. [Definition of National Committees] The IAU100 NameExoWorlds national committees shall be composed of at least 5 people, gender balanced and appointed by the IAU100 national committeesor the IAU National Outreach Committees. The IAU National Outreach Coordinatoris an ex-officio member of the NameExoWorlds national committees. In the case of absences of IAU100 national committee, please form a IAU100 National Committee, please contact firstname.lastname@example.org email@example.com details. “National” here refers to countries or regions recognized by the IAU. [The Process] ● Feb 15, 2019: The instructions of the National Committees Guideline (this guide) were announced. ● March 2019: A list of well-characterized exoplanets discovered is selected and provided for the national committees for the public naming by the International Astronomical Union (IAU) upon the recommendation of its IAU100 special project. These exoplanetary systems only have one known exoplanet (so far, as of February 2019). These exoplanets and the stars they orbit are here referred to as ExoWorlds and eligible for naming via the public naming campaign. The list of exoplanetary systems will be published on the NameExoWorlds website. National committees submit their national selection plan to the Steering Committee for approval. ● April 2019: The steering committee response to the national proposals. National Committees release their national selection plan. ● November 15- Deadline for national committees send the selection/back-ups to the national committee. ● November to December 2019: the IAU, via its IAU100 NameExoWorlds Steering Committee, validates the winning names from the national selection. ● First Half December - Prepare press releases, and translate to different languages, etc, announcement. ● Week 16-21 December - Result will be announced. [National selection] ● National committees submit their national selection plan in March to the Steering Committee, using the NameExoWorlds basecamp, for approval including the followings before the national campaign starts ○ Selection committee member list (later change of national committee members shall be approved by the Steering Committee) ○ Proposal collections method ○ Estimate number of proposals received ○ Promotion method ○ Project timeline ○ Down selection method ○ Voting method ○ Link to the national project page [Criteria for the national section process] ● Schools, amateurs and astronomers shall be involved- The national committee shall invite proposals from schools, as much as possible, amateur astronomers (if exist) and professional astronomers (if exist). It is up to the decision of the national committees to decide whether the proposals shall be submitted by organizations (e.g. clubs, schools) or individuals, or both. ● Public involvement- The national committee is responsible for public interest and proposal submission, either directly through the national committee or through an organization authorized by the national committee. ● Project dissemination- The national committee member list, process and regular updates shall be available to the public via posting on a webpage. In case a website is insufficient as a means of communication for the country, please counter-propose a dissemination method and ask for exemption from the steering committee. It is the responsibility of the national committee to ensure the proposals received represent large interests, if the total number of proposals is unreasonably low, the steering committee reserve the rights to veto the result. ● Language- The national committee can conduct the national campaign and collect proposals in local languages, however the final selected proposal and backup entries should be translate into English. ● Down selection- The national committee shall downselect all the received proposals, and submit a ranked list of 3 to 10 to the steering committee. ● Validation- The national committee shall validate the proposals before the voting, and make sure they follow the IAU naming guidelines. If the proposals do not follow the IAU naming guidelines, the steering committee will veto the proposals. ● Voting- The national committee shall organize a voting on the final list, the voting can be done by the national committee, or by the public, or a combination of both. ● Submission- The national committee shall submit the following to the steering committee by Nov 15: One final selected proposal and 2 backups in original language and English translation ■ Total number of proposals received ■ Name and citation for exoplanet ■ Name and citation for exoplanet’s star ■ Brief summary (1-2 sentences) of naming theme for exoplanet and host star ■ Proposer ■ Comments from the national committee on the proposal ■ Confirmation that the proposals were fully validated ■ Voting result ● Please ask for exemptions in case the above does not apply in certain countries ● National committee shall response to the Steering Committee enquiries related to the selection and selected proposals promptly. ● Duplications- In case of different national committees selected the same name, backups will be considered. [Examples] Example 1 1. Proposal can be proposed by astronomers (by individual astronomers), amateur clubs (by the club as a unit) and school (whole schools as a unit) via an online submission form. 2. Public can submit names to the national observatory. 500 names will be received and down select to 5 for further consideration. 3. Expected to receive 50 proposals from astronomers, 100 by clubs and 500 from schools. 4. The committee evaluate all the 655 proposals and down select 20 proposals for public voting. Example 2 1. The campaign is in partnership with a TV broadcaster. Promotions will be sent to all channels including schools. TV broadcaster will organize a TV program introduce the exoplanet and project start the collection from July 1. 2. 4000 proposals is expected. 3. The committee download select 10 proposals and introduce them in another TV program and open a public voting associated with the TV program. [Tips] 1. It is good practice NOT to receive too many proposals, an intermediate step or screening by a sub-organization can help to down sample the number of proposals. 2. If you conduct public voting, please make sure to check all the votes are valid (no double voting or spamming etc) 3. The validation of the proposals shall be conducted as early as possible to avoid conflicts in the later stage. [Naming rules] The IAU is seeking proposals for proper names of exoplanets and the stars they orbit through the IAU100 NameExoWorlds naming campaign. The proposed names should be of things, people, or places of long-standing cultural, historical, or geographical significance, worthy of being memorialized through naming of a celestial object. Although not necessary, the names may be drawn from themes related to the sky and astronomy, or related in some way to the constellation that the exoplanetary system lies in. Two names should be proposed - one for the exoplanet and one for the star it orbits. The two names should follow a common naming theme. The naming theme describing how the names are related in some logical way should be summarized in a sentence or two, and be broad enough that additional names could be drawn from the literature to name additional objects in that exoplanetary system in the future (e.g. additional planets which might be discovered, additional stellar companions). Example: Rivers of country XYZ. Fictional lands in 19th century stories from country XYZ, etc. 1. Proposed names (after translation) should be: ○ Between 4 and 16 characters in length in Latin alphabets (including spaces or punctuation) ○ Preferably one word. ○ Pronounceable (in some language) ○ Non-offensive ○ Not identical to, or too similar to, an existing name of an astronomical object. Names already assigned to astronomical objects can be checked using these links: i. IAU names for asteroids in the Minor Planet Center (MPC) database http://www.minorplanetcenter.net/db_search, ii. Names of galactic and extragalactic objects in the Sesame name resolver http://cds.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/Sesame, iii. IAU names for planets, dwarf planets, and satellites: https://planetarynames.wr.usgs.gov/Page/Planets, iv. IAU names for stars https://www.iau.org/public/themes/naming_stars/, v. IAU names for exoplanets http://nameexoworlds.iau.org/names ○ In addition, it is not allowed to propose: i. Names of a purely or principally commercial nature. ii. Names of individuals, places or events principally known for political, military or religious activities. iii. Names of individuals that died less than a century ago (1919). iv. Names of living individuals. v. Names of organizations related to the selection. vi. Names of pet animals. vii. Contrived names (i.e. new, invented). viii. Acronyms. ix. Names that include numbers or punctuation marks (diacritics are acceptable) 2. Only names that are not protected by trademarks or other forms of intellectual property claims may be proposed. 3. All the proposal names should come with a citation of not more than 100 words in English after translation. 4. The decision of the IAU, via the Steering Committee, on the names to be offered for general public vote is done based on these guidelinesand are final. 5. It is understood that the selected public names, will not replace the scientific alphanumeric designations, but will be recognised by the IAU as the appropriate publicly used name for the object(s), and be published as such, along with due credit to the proposer that proposed it. This public name may then be used internationally along with, or instead of, the scientific designation, permanently and without restrictions.
The International Astronomical Union (IAU) and the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan (NAOJ) will host the first IAU Symposium on “Astronomy for Equity, Diversity and Inclusion -- a roadmap to action within the framework of IAU centennial anniversary” in Tokyo, Japan, from 12-15 November, 2019. Given the relevance of this symposium to the community we would like to kindly ask you to disseminate this information through your networks and invite you to engage with the symposium by attending and/or sharing your work in the field. We also encourage you and your institution to actively participate in the draft of the future IAU Resolutions, to be presented in the IAU General Assembly in Busan 2021, by expressing your wish to contribute via email (firstname.lastname@example.org). You can find our second announcement below. Wishing you all the best for 2019 and we hope we can count on your further support and hopefully your presence in Japan! Lina Canas, on behalf of the IAU358 Symposium Organizing Committees __ Symposium from the International Astronomical Union IAUS358 - 2nd Announcement: Astronomy for Equity, Diversity and Inclusion Location: NAOJ Mitaka Campus, Tokyo, JAPAN Date: November 12 - 15, 2019 Official Website: https://iau-oao.nao.ac.jp/iaus358/ Registration: https://iau-oao.nao.ac.jp/iaus358/registration/ Abstract Submission: https://iau-oao.nao.ac.jp/iaus358/abstract-submission/ In 2019, November 12 to 15, Japan will host the first IAU symposium on Astronomy for Equity, Diversity and Inclusion. The symposium aims to be a roadmap to action, highlighting the role diversity and inclusion play in producing better science, contribute for competitiveness and innovation and to focus on specific steps leading to change on the field. This symposium is aimed at all astronomy professionals that wish to bring inclusiveness to their research and diversity to their teams, practices, work environments and institutions. This first IAU symposium will lay grounds for future IAU Resolutions on Equity, Equality, Diversity and Inclusion policies in Astronomy. The IAU Resolutions will outline a set of viewpoints and subsequent proposed actions, in alignment with the new IAU Strategic Plan 2020-2030 and will ultimately seek official endorsement by the Executive Committee and the IAU General Assembly in Busan, in 2021. A first presentation of the resolutions will be done during the meeting in Japan. With the same inclusive and open approach that permeates all dialogues of the symposium, the organization wishes to invite everyone to join the project and contribute in their own unique way. Registration and Abstract submission are now open, and the organization welcomes contributions on the following topics: Learning from Best Practices in Disabilities and Establishing a Framework to Address Equity and Equality in Astronomy Organizations, Facilities and Academic Institutions; Identify and Address Barriers to Access: fostering a climate of inclusivity; New Technologies for Accessibility: diversity and disability; Astronomy for society ? Inclusion, Diversity, Equity, and Empathy in Communicating Astronomy; Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs): gender equality and empowerment; IAU100: Global Perspectives on Equity, Diversity and Inclusion in Astronomy; Diversity in Research: identity, ethnicity and culture in research teams. Find out more about each Key Topic here: https://iau-oao.nao.ac.jp/iaus358/keytopics/ Requests for IAU Financial Support can be submitted from January 15, 2019, until July 15, 2019. The IAU grants are meant to support qualified scientists to whom limited means of support are available, e.g., colleagues from economically less privileged communities or groups and young scientists. For more information, please visit the website: https://iau-oao.nao.ac.jp/iaus358/ If you have any question concerning the Symposium, please contact email@example.com. The IAUS358 Scientific and Local Organizing Committees are looking forward to warmly welcoming you in Tokyo, Japan.
IAU100] Above & Beyond Exhibition Decade11 ai자료 압축파일 입니다. D11.1.1 What is the size and structure of the Universe? Today we understand the Universe to be an immensely complex structure, which is home to hundreds of billions of galaxies that each contain billions of stars and planets. The tools we have today are orders of magnitude more powerful and precise than the best facilities available at the beginning of the 20th century. We can now peer into the far reaches of the observable Universe as well as look back into its origins. However, there is much that we still do not yet understand. What is dark matter composed of? What is the true nature of dark energy? What intricate mysteries of the Universe can be uncovered by gravitational waves and other multi-messenger probes? Is there more than one Universe or do we indeed live in a Multiverse? These and many other exciting questions await to be tackled by the next generation of astronomers. D11.2.1 How do stars form and shine? Stars are some of the most magnificent objects in the Universe. Research during ?the 20th century revealed what stars are made of and what makes them shine, allowing us to investigate how they evolve. By studying the stars, we have developed a better understanding of how the elements are created, but there remains much more to be discovered. What really happens in the early stages of star formation? How do planetary systems form and what controls their architecture? How do the cores of mature stars rotate and how much do newly-formed elements mix? Where are proton-rich isotopes formed? The next century of astronomical research holds many mysteries and exciting revelations. D11.3.1 Is there life elsewhere in the Universe? Unlike popular belief at the beginning of the century, we now have strong evidence that the conditions for life to arise do exist in some form beyond Earth itself. Perhaps life is hidden deep beneath the surface of Mars, in the underground oceans of some of Jupiter's and Saturn's moons, or elsewhere. Recent space missions are bringing us closer to verifying this hypothesis, opening a potentially new chapter in the history of humankind. We have also set our eyes on Mars, with prospects to send a human mission to the Red Planet in the coming decades. Is that all? Can we expect some form of extraterrestrial contact from outside of our Solar System? Will we ever develop tools so powerful to unambiguously detect the presence of life on exoplanets? The future might surprise us in unexpected ways.
IAU100] Above & Beyond Exhibition Decade10 ai자료 압축파일 입니다. D10.1.1.A._SW Gravitational waves Astronomy and the public Astronomy is one of the most inspiring and engaging sciences for the greater public. In 2009, hundreds of millions of people engaged with astronomy during the UN's International Year of Astronomy. As part of a long-standing tradition, non-experts have been contributing significantly to astronomical research, ranging from the involvement of amateur astronomers to citizen-science programmes. This is a multicultural, active and knowledgeable global community. Although we all see the sky from slightly different perspectives, stargazing is the one of the most unique and transformative activities one can imagine. The night sky is an astronomer's laboratory and it connects us all to our common origins. Gravitational waves One of the key theoretical predictions of general relativity ? that accelerated massive objects produce waves in the very fabric of spacetime ? was finally proven about one hundred years later. In 2015, lasers in two detectors of the LIGO experiment independently recorded fluctuations that did not originate from anywhere on Earth. These signals had a common source: the collapse of two black holes, each as massive as 30 Suns, located roughly 1.4 billion light years away and coalescing into an even larger monster. The spacetime vibrations lasted less than half a second, but this was more than enough time to match their forms to a patterns library and to deduce the mass and distances of the black holes. This first detection enabled the use of gravitational waves as an observational tool for astronomy and cosmology in parallel to electromagnetic radiation. This opened a new scientific window for studying the Universe with more ongoing and planned projects on Earth and the development of an observatory in space. Spiral dance of black holes Credits: 01. TWAN/Babak Tafreshi, 02. Naveen Nanjundappa/She is as Astronomer, 03. ESO, 04. Mariusz Słonina / mariusz-slonina.pl 05. LIGO/T. Pyle, 06. C. Henze/NASA Ames Research Center, 07. ESA/C. Carreau, 08. Caltech/MIT/LIGO Lab LIGO Livingston observatory D10.1.2.A._SW Space missions Solar system missions Our persistent motivation to investigate the Universe, to understand our cosmic origins and to find extraterrestrial life pulls us to pursue continuously new research. We have been permanently present at low-Earth orbit for the past couple of decades thanks to the collaborative effort of many nations. We have sent crewless probes to different corners of the Solar System to answer questions about the origin of life and how it could have formed, billions years ago. In these adventurous missions,we probed the atmosphere of Saturn’s moon Titan, visited a comet and collected samples from an asteroid. Our messengers have also flown by the eerie mountains of distant Pluto and observed the largest planets and moons in the Solar System. Credits: NASA/Crew of STS-132 NASA NASA/Tracy Caldwell Dyson NASA/JHUAPL/SwRI NASA/JPL-Caltech/SSI ESA/NASA/JPL/University of Arizona NASA/JPL-Caltech/University of Arizona/University of Idaho Shinki Ikeda/MEF/JAXA ISAS JAXA, U. of Tokyo, Kochi U., Rikkyo U., Nagoya U., Chiba Institute of Technology, Meiji U., Aizu U., AIST ESA/Rosetta/Philae/CIVA ESA/Rosetta/NAVCAM NASA NASA/Crew of STS-91 NASA/JPL-Caltech Caltech/SwRI/MSSS/Gerald Eichstadt/Sean Doran NASA/JPL-Caltech/SwRI/MSSS/Gerald Eichstadt/ Sean Doran International Space Station 1998- New Horizons 2006- Mir 1986-2001 juno 2011- Cassini 1997-2017 Hayabusa 1 & 2 2003 Rosetta 2004-2016 ExoMars 2016- DAWN 2007- Curiosity 2011- BepiColombo 2018- OSIRIS-REx 2016- Europa Clipper 2022- D10.1.3.A._SW Worldwide collaborations Worldwide collaborations International collaboration has supported the most successful observational astronomy projects. The Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) is a paramount example of a worldwide collaboration between Europe, East Asia and North America in partnership with Chile. It is now the most ambitious radio observatory on Earth consisting of 66 antennas located in northern Chile. Looking ahead, the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is currently scheduled for launch in 2021 and is a joint effort between North America and Europe. Organisations, engineers and scientists from around the world are also working together on the Square Kilometre Array: the world’s largest radio telescope that will eventually cover a collecting area of over one square kilometre. Collaborations such as these will open new, deeper and sharper windows to continue making sense of the Universe in the next decades. ALMA antennas Credit: ESO/B. Tafreshi Square Kilometer Array telescope Credit: SKA/Mathieu Isidro James Webb Space Telescope Credit: NASA/Desiree Stover D10.1.5._SW Infrastructure table Transformative infrastructure Expanding the knowledge about the Universe brings people from all around the world to work together to uncover its riddles. Increasingly sophisticated studies require stronger tools, including advanced telescopes, which today are multi-continental, large scale infrastructural projects. Those tools are by an order of magnitude more powerful and complicated than those available at the begining of the century, offering us a deeper and more meaningful way of studying the Universe. Credits : 1. Thirty Meter Telescope / Credit : TMT International Observatory 2. Large Synoptic Survey Telescope / Credit: LSST Proejct/NSF/AURA 3. Gran Telescopio Canarias / Credit : Gran Telescopio de Canarias 4. Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope / Credit : NCRA-TIFR 5. Cherenkov Telescope Array / Credit : Gabriel Perez Diaz, IAC 6. Keck observatory / Credit : Ethan Tweedie Photography/W.M.Keck Observatory 7. Giant Magallan Telescope / Credit : Giant Magellan Telescope Organization 8. Five hundred meter aperture spherical Telescope / Credit : Reuters/Stringer 9. The Southern African Large Telescope / Credit : Wynand Basson Images 10. Chandra X-Ray Observatory / Credit : NASA / Harvard University 11. Very Large Telescope / Credit : ESO/G. Hudepohl 12. Kepler / Credit : NASA 13. Hobby-Eberly Telescope / Credit : University of Texas HOOKER TELESCOPE Year : 1917 Mirror Size : 2.5 M Height : 30.5M SUBARU TELESCOPE Year : 1999 Mirror size : 8.3M Height : 43 M EXTREMELY LARGE TELESCOPE Year : 2024 Mirror size : 39.3 M Height : 74 M
IAU100] Above & Beyond Exhibition Decade9 ai자료 압축파일 입니다. D09.3.1._Reclassification of Pluto RECLASSIFICATION OF PLUTO Discovered in 1930, Pluto was considered the ninth and most distant planet of our Solar System for more than 70 years. However, after discovering objects of similar size, its status as a planet was widely questioned. Members of the IAU who gathered at the 26th General Assembly in 2006 in Prague (Czech Republic) agreed on a new definition of planet: an object that is in orbit around the Sun, has a spherical shape and has cleared the neighbourhood around its orbit. As a consequence, this resolution reclassified Pluto as a dwarf planet. The discussion around redefinition has attracted much interest and triggered discussions among the scientific community and the general public alike. NEW HORIZONS IMAGE OF PLUTO Credit: NASA/JHUAPL/SWRI D09.3.1._Reclassification of Pluto(1) RECLASSIFICATION OF PLUTO Discovered in 1930, Pluto was considered the ninth and most distant planet of our Solar System for more than 70 years. However, after discovering objects of similar size, its status as a planet was widely questioned. Members of the IAU who gathered at the 26th General Assembly in 2006 in Prague (Czech Republic) agreed on a new definition of planet: an object that is in orbit around the Sun, has a spherical shape and has cleared the neighbourhood around its orbit. As a consequence, this resolution reclassified Pluto as a dwarf planet. The discussion around redefinition has attracted much interest and triggered discussions among the scientific community and the general public alike. NEW HORIZONS IMAGE OF PLUTO Credit: NASA/JHUAPL/SWRI
IAU100] Above & Beyond Exhibition Decade8 ai자료 압축파일 입니다. D08.1.1.A._DarkUniverse Credit: NASA/W. Liller HALLEY’S COMET DARK UNIVERSE NORMAL MATTER 5% One of the most surprising discoveries of the last century is that normal matter, which makes up the stars, planets, and all living things, amounts to less than 5% of the Universe. In the 1970s and 1980s, a number of observations revealed that the mass of observed normal matter in the Universe was insufficient to explain the existing forces of gravity within and between galaxies. Stars on the outskirts of galaxies move much faster than what would result from the attraction of the observed matter alone. Furthermore, the CMBR provides support for the concept of a special form of matter that does not interact with light, only via gravity with other matter. Today however, the nature of dark matter remains undetected, and thus remains one of the most profound riddles for astronomy and physics. SCHEMATIC OF HALLEY ARMADA DARK ENERGY 70% DARK MATTER 25% D08.1.2.R.pdf_Galaxy evolution wall MARS ROVERS 1997: PATHFINDER 2004: SPIRIT 2004: OPPORTUNITY 2012: CURIOSITY GALAXY EVOLUTION RESULTS OF THE MILLENNIUM SIMULATION RUN DEPICTING DARK MATTER DISTRIBUTION, COMPARED WITH GALAXY CLUSTER GRAVITATIONAL LENS OBSERVATIONS Credit: Springel et al., 2005/NASA/ESA/Hubble SM4 ERO Team/ST-ECF COMPARISON OF SIMULATED GALAXY AND M74 Credit: University of Zurich, NASA BLACK HOLE IN THE CENTRE OF THE GALAXY SIMULATION SHOWING THE ORBITS OF STARS VERY CLOSE TO THE SUPERMASSIVE BLACK HOLE IN THE CENTRE OF MILKY WAY Credits: ESO/L. Calcada/spaceengine.org The existence of black holes was only theorised until the discovery of X-rays from the Cygnus X-1 source in 1964. These mysterious and massive objects are so dense that even light cannot escape their gravity. In 2002, two international teams led by Reinhard Genzel and Andrea Ghez reported the observation of the motion of S2, a star orbiting the centre of our Milky Way and Sagittarius A*, a powerful source of radio waves lurking in the area. This star, the first to be observed completing a full orbit around the Galactic Centre, proved that our galaxy also has a central supermassive black hole (which we now believe to be present at the centre of most galaxies). D08.1.3.A_Hubble Deep Field (ceiling) HUBBLE ULTRA DEEP FIELD 2004 D08.2.1._Exoplanets cubicle DISCOVERY OF FIRST EXOPLANETS 3 812* EXOPLANET ONLY CONFIRMED AFTER THE DISCOVERY UNKNOWN SIZE (RADIUS) OF THE EXOPLANET KNOWN APPROXIMATE SIZE OF THE EXOPLANET OUR SOLAR SYSTEM EXOPLANETS IN THE CONSERVATIVE HABITABLE ZONE *DATA VALID FOR JULY 30TH, 2018 D08.3.1._Astronomy on Earth ASTRONOMY IN EVERYDAY LIFE Decades of technological spin-offs and cross-talk between astronomy and industry led to the development of personal computers, communication satellites, mobile phones, WiFi, Global Positioning Systems (GPS), solar panels and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) scanners. Increases in computing and telecommunications towards the end of the 20th century meant that ordinary computers could handle calculations that a few decades earlier required some of the world's largest supercomputers. Equally significant was the launch of the Internet. This enabled astronomy to become one of the most open among scientific disciplines, with the global community of researchers sharing data, results and practices, and astronomy enthusiasts contributing via a variety of widely distributed citizen-science projects, ranging from the classic 1990s SETI@home to the more recent Galaxy Zoo and Planet Hunters. GAMMA-RAY SPECTROMETERS GLOBAL POSITIONING SYSTEMS (GPS) SOLAR RADIATION COLLECTORS SUPERCOMPUTERS SYNTHESIS IMAGING TOMOGRAPHY WIRELESS LOCAL AREA NETWORKS (WI-FI) D08.4.1._Pale Blue Dot PALE BLUE DOT What does Earth look like from afar? To answer this question, scientists in 1990 decided to use the cameras of Voyager 1 to capture a series of images of the Solar System before being turned off. This “Family Portrait” of our cosmic ‘neck of the woods’ consists of a total of 60 frames, combined in a memorable mosaic of the Solar System, and is shot from a distance of more than 6 billion kilometres from Earth. Prompted by a suggestion from Carl Sagan, this distant snapshot of Earth became known as the iconic “Pale Blue Dot”, by revealing our planet as a mere speck of light against the vast darkness of space. Credits: NASA
IAU100] Above & Beyond Exhibition Decade7 ai자료 압축파일 입니다. D07.1.1._Supemova 1987A SUPERNOVA 1987A In February 1987, a flash appeared in the southern night sky. Located 168 000 light-years from Earth in a nearby galaxy called the Large Magellanic Cloud, it was the 1987A Supernova. This flash was caused by a massive star ending its life in a spectacular explosion. It was the brightest phenomenon of this nature to be observed in our cosmic vicinity for centuries and was even visible to the naked eye for several months. This observation helped push forward our understanding of the evolution of stars. Credit: NASA/ESA, R. Kirshner, M. Mutchler, R. Avila D07.2.1._Halley's cubicle HALLEY’S COMET For millennia, we have feared comets as objects of destruction, until astronomical observations and celestial mechanics in the 17th century clarified the nature of these cosmic wanderers. In 1986, the Giotto spacecraft flew within 600 kilometers of Comet Halley and revealed for the first time how the nucleus of a comet looks up close: very black due to organic material. Recent research suggests that these icy relics of our Solar System’s formation may have contributed to bringing water and other molecules to our planet, including the building blocks of life. Credit: Halley Multicolor Camera Team, Giotto Project, ESA D07.3.1._Communicating with the public COMMUNICATING ASTRONOMY WITH THE PUBLIC 01 CARL SAGAN 02 STEPHEN HAWKING Today, it is hard to imagine astronomical outreach without public lectures, books, TV shows and a multitude of online materials. However, this material was not always so plentiful. It is thanks to the efforts of exceptional scientists around the world who were active as science communicators, such as Carl Sagan and Stephen Hawking, that astronomy and physics reached their current status in modern media and culture. Their seminal works include Sagan’s 1980 book and TV series “Cosmos” and Hawking’s 1988 book, “A Brief History of Time”, which both played a key role in communicating complex topics to the public in an approachable, yet inspiring and entertaining way. Credits: 01. Cosmos / Carl Sagan, 02. Cambridge University