IAU100] Above & Beyond Exhibition Decade1 ai자료 압축파일 입니다.
D01.1.1.A_SW Hooker Telescope
HOOKER TELESCOPE MT. WILSON OBSERVATORY, USA
Completed in 1917, the Hooker Telescope was the largest and most precise astronomical instrument in the world for nearly three decades, leading the way for an exciting new era in stellar and extragalactic research.
Observations conducted with this telescope helped astronomers prove that there is much more to the Universe than our local hub of stars in the Milky Way, which is but one of a myriad of galaxies. It has also allowed us to measure the size of the star Betelgeuse for the first time and to identify early clues for the existence of the mysterious dark matter. Even over 100 years later, this remarkable monument of observational astronomy is still used today for science outreach and by visitors who can observe the cloudless skies of California.
Credit: Observatories of the Carnegie Institution for Science Collection at the Huntington Library, San Marino, California
EARLY SCI-FI AND THE ANTICIPATION OF EXTRATERRESTRIAL LIFE
With the onset of cinematography and radio transmission, the beginning of the 20th century brought a revolution in new forms of media. The live broadcast and the motion picture added new layers of storytelling and immersion that allowed writers, directors and producers to explore science and technology inspired futures, taking them beyond the realm of literature.
01 Das Himmelschiff [A Trip To Mars], Denmark 1919
02 Аэлита [Aelita], Soviet Union 1924
03 Algol. Tragodie der Macht [Algol: Tragedy of Power], Germany 1920
04 The Skylark of Space, USA 1915-1920
D01.1.1.R._SW external walls
ABOVE AND BEYOND 1919?2019
MAKING SENSE OF THE UNIVERSE FOR 100 YEARS
- HOW DO STARS FORM AND SHINE?
- IS THERE LIFE ELSEWHERE IN THE UNIVERSE?
- WHAT IS THE SIZE AND STRUCTURE OF THE UNIVERSE?
D01.1.4.A_SW Solar Eclipse
ABOVE AND BEYOND
MAKING SENSE OF THE
UNIVERSE FOR 100 YEARS
TOTAL SOLAR ECLIPSE 29 MAY 1919
Once a total solar eclipse is witnessed, such an event cannot be forgotten. For centuries, total solar eclipses were perceived as frightening, almost mystical events. The short period during which day turns into night is a spectacle caused by the Moon blocking the Sun.
A century ago, this phenomenon was used to successfully test, for the first time, a novel theoretical concept coined by Albert Einstein: the General Theory of Relativity. Two expeditions led by Eddington & Dyson (Sao Tome and Principe) and Crommelin (Sobral, Brazil) were set out to observe an eclipse in May 1919. The researchers confirmed that the light of stars around the Sun is indeed deflected due to the solar mass in the amount predicted by Einstein’s theory.
Credit: Memoirs of the Royal Astronomical Society, Courtesy of the Royal Astronomical Society Library
D01.1.4.R_SW 1919 data-wall
WHAT IS THE UNIVERSE? IS EARTH THE ONLY LIVING PLANET?HOW DOES THE SUN FUNCTION? WILL WE BE EVER ABLE TO TRAVEL INTO SPACE? IS EINSTEIN RIGHT?
WHAT WE KNEW IN 1919
NUMBER OF INDIVIDUAL IAU MEMBERS: 207
NUMBER OF RESEARCH OBSERVATORIES AROUND THE WORLD: 100
DISTANCE OF OPTICAL OBSERVATION: 2.5 MILLION L.Y.
DISTANCE INTO SPACE REACHED BY HUMAN-MADE MACHINE: 0 KM
NUMBER OF KNOWN POTENTIALLY HAZARDOUS ASTEROIDS: 0
NUMBER OF KNOWN PLANETS: 8
NUMBER OF KNOWN GALAXIES: 1
1 LIGHT YEAR (L.Y.) = 9.5 TRILLION KILOMETRES
DATA SOURCES: 1. INTERNATIONAL ASTRONOMICAL UNION (1922), 2. & 5. MINOR PLANET CENTER / SMITHSONIAN ASTROPHYSICAL OBSERVATORY, 3. OESH ET AL., THE ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL, 2016, 4. NASA/JPL, 6. HTTP://EXOPLANET.EU, 7. MARIO LIVIO (STSCI)
IS THERE MORE THAN ONE UNIVERSE? WILL WE EVER FIND A THEORY OF EVERYTHING? WHEN WILL WE DETECT AND ENCOUNTER EXTRATERRESTRIAL LIFE? WILL HUMANITY BECOME AN INTERPLANETARY CIVILIZATION? WAS EINSTEIN WRONG?
WHAT WE KNOW IN 2019
NUMBER OF INDIVIDUAL IAU MEMBERS: 12 380
NUMBER OF RESEARCH OBSERVATORIES AROUND THE WORLD: 2 099
DISTANCE OF OPTICAL OBSERVATION: ~32 BILLION L.Y.
DISTANCE INTO SPACE REACHED BY HUMAN-MADE MACHINE: 21.3 BILLION KM
NUMBER OF KNOWN POTENTIALLY HAZARDOUS ASTEROIDS: 1 920
NUMBER OF KNOWN PLANETS: 3 812 + 8
NUMBER OF KNOWN GALAXIES: 100?200 BILLION
INFORMATION VALID FOR JULY 30TH, 2018
DATA SOURCES: 1. INTERNATIONAL ASTRONOMICAL UNION, 2. & 5. MINOR PLANET CENTER / SMITHSONIAN ASTROPHYSICAL OBSERVATORY, 3. OESH ET. AL. 2016, 4. NASA/JPL, 6. HTTP://EXOPLANET.EU, 7. MARIO LIVIO (STSCI)
D01.1.5.A.A._SW The Great Debate
THE GREAT DEBATE
In 1920, we were still trying to figure out the cosmic order. Two astronomers, Harlow Shapley and Heber Curtis, confronted each other in an historic debate that argued the very nature of our galactic home: the Milky Way. Shapley held the opinion that the so-called ‘spiral nebulae’ (fuzzy, cloud-like objects observed in the sky) were in fact clouds belonging to our Milky Way like the Orion Nebula.
Curtis instead believed the spiral nebulae are themselves galaxies like our own Milky Way, that are much further into space and thus expanding our perceived size of the Universe. While both were backed by the best scientific evidence available at the time, the debate remained unsolved for a few years. When the first measurement of the distance to one such spiral ? Andromeda ? was made, Curtis was proved right. The spiral nebulae were large, distant, independent galaxies beyond our own, in a much larger Universe.
"It seems to me that the evidence is opposed to the view that the spirals are individual galaxies comparable with our own. In fact, there appears as yet no reason for modifying the tentative hypothesis that the spirals are not composed of typical stars at all, but are truly nebulous objects"
Credit: Harvard University Archives
NEBULA OR GALAXY?
01 FLAME NEBULA
CREDIT: ESO/IDA/DANISH 1.5 M/R. GENDLER, J.-E. OVALDSEN, C. THONE AND C. FERON
02 TOBY JUB NEBULA
03 NGC 1300 GALAXY
CREDIT: NASA/ESA/HUBBLE HERITAGE TEAM (STSCI/AURA)
04 RING NEBULA
CREDIT: NASA/ESA/HUBBLE HERITAGE TEAM (STSCI/AURA)
05 SOMBRERO GALAXY
06 ESO 486-21 GALAXY
CREDIT: ESA/HUBBLE & NASA
"The evidence points strongly to the conclusion that spirals are individual galaxies, or islands of galaxies, comparable with our own galaxy in dimension and in number of component units."
Credit: Allegheny Observatory Records