IAU100] Above & Beyond Exhibition Decade5 ai자료 압축파일 입니다.
D05.1.1.A and other Probes
The Pioneer programme began in the late 1950s with a series of space probes to study the Moon. As ambition grew, the subsequent spacecraft were set on interplanetary journeys to explore the inner Solar System. Arguably, the most memorable were Pioneer 10 and 11. Launched in the early 1970s, these flyby missions to Jupiter and Saturn provided the first close-up views of the giant gaseous planets. Both missions carried golden plaques featuring a pictorial message designed to carry information about humankind to possible extraterrestrial species. The programme concluded in 1978 with two missions to Venus to explore its atmosphere and surface.
Credits:01., 02. & 04. NASA, 03. & 05. NASA Ames Research Center
COSMIC MICROWAVE BACKGROUND RADIATION(CMBR)
1965 : PENZIAS AND WILSON
A relic from the Big Bang, known as the Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation (CMBR), is a reminder from a distant past when there were no stars or galaxies; only a cosmic soup of light and matter particles existed. The CMBR dates back to when matter and light parted ways, or ‘decoupled’, when the Universe was only 400 000 years old. It was discovered accidentally in 1964, when Arno Penzias and Robert Wilson were testing the Horn Antenna at Bell Labs in New Jersey, USA. The CMBR supports the Big Bang theory as the best way to explain the origin of our cosmos and has been studied with increasingly advanced tools and precision since its discovery.
WILKINSON MICROWAVE ANISOTROPY PROBE (WMAP)
Credit: NASA/WMAP Science Team
In 1967, while making typical radio observations of the night sky as part of her graduate studies at Cambridge, Jocelyn Bell Burnell detected a strange and previously unseen signal. She later discovered that the signal was 'pulsing' with great regularity, roughly at the rate of one pulse every 1.3 seconds. Along with her advisor Antony Hewish, they dubbed the signal ‘LGM-1’ for ‘Little Green Man 1’ as a humorous reference to one of the many possibilities that could explain such a bizarre signal ? extraterrestrial life. Soon after, Thomas Gold proposed that this type of signal could only be emitted by a rapidly spinning neutron star. Although this theory was not immediately accepted, it became widely recognised after extensive studies of the pulsar in the centre of the Crab Nebula. Today, pulsars are a valuable tool in astronomy, as they are used to detect gravitational waves and are also the most accurate clocks in the Universe.
PSR B1919+21 20 MS
COMPOSITION OF RADIO SIGNAL FROM THE PULSAR CP 1919
Credit: J. P. Ostriker, Scientific American, 1971
Today, the term “black hole” is fairly mainstream: we read it in news headlines and it is frequently featured in comics, films, music and all sorts of commercial products. Interestingly, it was used for the first time in a print publication roughly fifty years ago, by science journalist Ann Ewing in January 1964. Black holes are regions of space where mass is concentrated so densely that its extreme gravitational force allows nothing, not even light, to escape. They form when very massive stars - with more than 20 times the mass of the Sun - collapse at the end of their life cycle, and may grow even more massive by collecting mass from their surroundings. There are also supermassive black holes, with masses millions to billions that of our Sun, which are found at the centre of large galaxies.
Credit: ESO/L. Calcada/spaceengine.org
REVOLUTION IN COMPUTERISATION
Advances in computing and software development have had a significant effect on astronomy, providing astronomers with a powerful toolkit to decode the complex phenomena that shape the Universe. In the early 1950s, roughly half the cycles of John von Neumann's pioneering MANIAC computer were devoted to running the first codes to study stellar evolution. Later, in the 1960s, more advanced computers allowed the first detailed models of supernova explosions. Because the field of astronomy depends heavily on large quantities of data and complex modelling, it has always been at the forefront of high-performance computing.
120 YEARS OF MOORE'S LAW