IAU100] Above & Beyond Exhibition Decade6 ai자료 압축파일 입니다. Decade 6은 자료가 많아 6-1과 6-2로 업로드 합니다. D06.1.1.R_Interstellar medium HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE VIEW ON PILLARS OF CREATION Credit: NASA, ESA, Hubble Heritage Team (STScI/AURA) INTERSTELLAR MEDIUM The space between stars is not empty, as it also contains a mixture of gas and dust. Known as the interstellar medium (ISM), it plays a crucial role in the formation of stars and their evolution. The ISM provides the raw material from which stars are born and to which they return their elements after their demise. The necessary building blocks of life, such as water and complex molecules (including those that are carbon-based) have all been found in the ISM. While many observational and theoretical steps have been made to understand this interstellar mixture, many aspects of its complex physics and chemistry still remain a mystery to researchers, while its snapshots make for some of the most spectacular images of the Universe. ALMA IMAGE OF THE PROTOPLANETARY DISC AROUND YOUNG STAR HL TAURI Credit: ALMA (ESO/NAOJ/NRAO) HERSCHEL SPACE OBSERVATORY VIEW OF NEW STARS AND MOLECULAR CLOUDS Credit: ESA/Herschel/NASA/JPL-Caltech; R. Hurt (JPL-Caltech) D06.1.2.R. and others_Understanding the Sun UNDERSTANDING THE SUN Despite its constant presence in our sky, the Sun has posed long-standing mysteries. This includes its structure to its inner workings and its very nature. A certain type of sub-atomic particle, called the neutrino, is of particular interest to researchers and is continually produced in large numbers in a star’s interior. Since monitoring began in the 1960’s, the number of observed neutrinos did not match the predictions from theory. This conundrum was known as the solar neutrino problem, highlighted by John Bahcall. Addressed with the groundbreaking results from the Homestake experiment led by Raymond Davis, and later confirmed by Japan's Super-Kamiokande detector led by Masatoshi Koshiba, the mystery was finally solved. Neutrinos were characterised and better understood by how they can oscillate between different states along their journey from the Sun to us. Credit: Sun in ultraviolet light / NASA/SDO UNDERSTANDING THE SUN In the 1960s, we discovered that the Sun pulsates, breathing in and out. This is a phenomenon known as solar oscillations, which gave rise to a new domain of research and study of the Sun called helioseismology. This area would later branch out to asteroseismology: the study of oscillations of stars other than the Sun. Credit: Pulsating star / Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research 01 HMI DOPPLERGRAM SURFACE MOVEMENT PHOTOSPHERE 02 HMI MAGNETOGRAM MAGNETIC FIELD POLARITY PHOTOSPHERE 03 HMI CONTINUUM MATCHES VISIBLE LIGHT PHOTOSPHERE 04 AIA 1700 PHOTOSPHERE 05 AIA 4500 PHOTOSPHERE 06 AIA 1600 UPPER PHOTOSPHERE / TRANSITION REGION 07 AIA 304 TRANSITION REGION / CHROMOSPHERE 08 AIA 171 UPPER TRANSITION REGION / QUIET CORONA 09 AIA 171 CORONA / FLARE PLASMA UNDERSTANDING THE SUN Today we observe sunlight far beyond the ranges visible to the naked eye by studying the Sun in many different wavelengths, from radio waves to X-rays. Much of this radiation is absorbed by Earth’s atmosphere, which made the space age instrumental to opening this new observational window. Credit: Sun in different wavelengths / NASA/SDO/Goddard Space Flight Center 10 AIA 211 ACTIVE REGIONS 11 AIA 335 ACTIVE REGIONS 12 AIA 094 FLARING REGIONS 13 AIA 131 FLARING REGIONS D06.1.4.A._Space and popculture SPACE INSPIRES POP CULTURE HAL 9000 A.I. MASTERMIND - 2001: A SPACE ODYSSEY SPACE STATION V GRAVITATIONAL ACCELERATION - 2001: A SPACE ODYSSEY SOLARIS STATION SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH STATION - SOLARIS SOLARIS PLANET-ENCOMPASSING ORGANISM - SOLARIS U.S.S. ENTREPRISE INTERPLANETARY SPACECRAFT - STAR TREK Space in pop culture hit its renaissance in the 1960s and 1970s. The nascent development of computer-assisted graphics empowered visionary filmmakers to create iconic works. Ranging from Stanley Kubrick’s 2001:A Space Odyssey to Andrei Tarkowski’s Solaris, the Star Trek series and the Star Wars saga, pop culture was never the same again. Millions of viewers would be exposed and inspired by ideas that would take years to prove scientifically, such as exoplanets or binary stars. As a result, many of today’s scientists, engineers and astrophysicists say they went into their line of work because they watched those films when they were young. TATOOINE PLANET AROUND A BINARY STAR SYSTEM - STAR WARS D06.1.4.A._Space and popculture2 SPACE INSPIRES POP CULTURE HAL 9000 A.I. MASTERMIND - 2001: A SPACE ODYSSEY SPACE STATION V GRAVITATIONAL ACCELERATION - 2001: A SPACE ODYSSEY SOLARIS STATION SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH STATION - SOLARIS SOLARIS PLANET-ENCOMPASSING ORGANISM - SOLARIS U.S.S. ENTREPRISE INTERPLANETARY SPACECRAFT - STAR TREK Space in pop culture hit its renaissance in the 1960s and 1970s. The nascent development of computer-assisted graphics empowered visionary filmmakers to create iconic works. Ranging from Stanley Kubrick’s 2001:A Space Odyssey to Andrei Tarkowski’s Solaris, the Star Trek series and the Star Wars saga, pop culture was never the same again. Millions of viewers would be exposed and inspired by ideas that would take years to prove scientifically, such as exoplanets or binary stars. As a result, many of today’s scientists, engineers and astrophysicists say they went into their line of work because they watched those films when they were young. TATOOINE PLANET AROUND A BINARY STAR SYSTEM - STAR WARS CULTURE INSPIRED BY SPACE ABORIGINAL ART SEVEN SISTERS DREAMING - Credit: Gabriella Possum MILKY WAY DREAMING - Credit: Rex Winston Walford Astronomy and space always had a strong influence on cultures across the world. Ancient civilisations on every continent, from Native Americans and Maya to ancient Egyptians, Greeks and Chinese, from Mesopotamians to Aboriginal Australians and Polynesians, all relied heavily on referencing the skies and linking the human experience to a broader cosmic dimension. Following this time-honoured tradition, the progress in 20th-century astronomy and the onset of the space age have been no less a source of awe and inspiration for a wide variety of cultural endeavours, ranging from Spanish surrealism and Socialist realism to Afrofuturism and Japanese manga. ARABIC ART ASTRONAUT -Credit: Raed Al Fada TWO PEOPLE IN SPACE OUTFITS - Credit: Abdel Hadi El-Gazzar THE LEBANESE ROCKET SOCIETY - Credit: Sodas Pictures AFROFUTURISM #MAASCI - Credit: Jacque Njeri IN THE ORBIT OF RA - Credit: SunRa SOCIALIST REALISM IN THE NAME OF PEACE -Credit: Irakli Toidze SPACE ART - Credit: Tekhnika Molodezhi SPANISH SURREALISM WOMAN, BIRDS, MOON -Credit: Joan Miro THE RED SUN AND GREEN MOON - Credit: Joan Miro JAPANESE MANGA SPACE BATTLESHIP YAMATO - Credit: Sumikai KNIGHTS OF SIDONIA - Credit: Tsutomu Nihei
IAU100] Above & Beyond Exhibition Decade5 ai자료 압축파일 입니다. D05.1.1.A and other Probes PIONEER The Pioneer programme began in the late 1950s with a series of space probes to study the Moon. As ambition grew, the subsequent spacecraft were set on interplanetary journeys to explore the inner Solar System. Arguably, the most memorable were Pioneer 10 and 11. Launched in the early 1970s, these flyby missions to Jupiter and Saturn provided the first close-up views of the giant gaseous planets. Both missions carried golden plaques featuring a pictorial message designed to carry information about humankind to possible extraterrestrial species. The programme concluded in 1978 with two missions to Venus to explore its atmosphere and surface. Credits:01., 02. & 04. NASA, 03. & 05. NASA Ames Research Center D05.1.1.R._CMBR COSMIC MICROWAVE BACKGROUND RADIATION(CMBR) 1965 : PENZIAS AND WILSON 1992: COBE 2010: WMAP 2013: PLANCK A relic from the Big Bang, known as the Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation (CMBR), is a reminder from a distant past when there were no stars or galaxies; only a cosmic soup of light and matter particles existed. The CMBR dates back to when matter and light parted ways, or ‘decoupled’, when the Universe was only 400 000 years old. It was discovered accidentally in 1964, when Arno Penzias and Robert Wilson were testing the Horn Antenna at Bell Labs in New Jersey, USA. The CMBR supports the Big Bang theory as the best way to explain the origin of our cosmos and has been studied with increasingly advanced tools and precision since its discovery. WILKINSON MICROWAVE ANISOTROPY PROBE (WMAP) Credit: NASA/WMAP Science Team D05.1.2.R._PULSARS PULSARS In 1967, while making typical radio observations of the night sky as part of her graduate studies at Cambridge, Jocelyn Bell Burnell detected a strange and previously unseen signal. She later discovered that the signal was 'pulsing' with great regularity, roughly at the rate of one pulse every 1.3 seconds. Along with her advisor Antony Hewish, they dubbed the signal ‘LGM-1’ for ‘Little Green Man 1’ as a humorous reference to one of the many possibilities that could explain such a bizarre signal ? extraterrestrial life. Soon after, Thomas Gold proposed that this type of signal could only be emitted by a rapidly spinning neutron star. Although this theory was not immediately accepted, it became widely recognised after extensive studies of the pulsar in the centre of the Crab Nebula. Today, pulsars are a valuable tool in astronomy, as they are used to detect gravitational waves and are also the most accurate clocks in the Universe. PSR B1919+21 20 MS COMPOSITION OF RADIO SIGNAL FROM THE PULSAR CP 1919 Credit: J. P. Ostriker, Scientific American, 1971 D05.2.1._Black Holes BLACK HOLES Today, the term “black hole” is fairly mainstream: we read it in news headlines and it is frequently featured in comics, films, music and all sorts of commercial products. Interestingly, it was used for the first time in a print publication roughly fifty years ago, by science journalist Ann Ewing in January 1964. Black holes are regions of space where mass is concentrated so densely that its extreme gravitational force allows nothing, not even light, to escape. They form when very massive stars - with more than 20 times the mass of the Sun - collapse at the end of their life cycle, and may grow even more massive by collecting mass from their surroundings. There are also supermassive black holes, with masses millions to billions that of our Sun, which are found at the centre of large galaxies. Credit: ESO/L. Calcada/spaceengine.org D05.3.1._Computerisation REVOLUTION IN COMPUTERISATION Advances in computing and software development have had a significant effect on astronomy, providing astronomers with a powerful toolkit to decode the complex phenomena that shape the Universe. In the early 1950s, roughly half the cycles of John von Neumann's pioneering MANIAC computer were devoted to running the first codes to study stellar evolution. Later, in the 1960s, more advanced computers allowed the first detailed models of supernova explosions. Because the field of astronomy depends heavily on large quantities of data and complex modelling, it has always been at the forefront of high-performance computing. 120 YEARS OF MOORE'S LAW
IAU100] Above & Beyond Exhibition Decade4 ai자료 압축파일 입니다. D04.1.1.A._OfE_elements Ne - NEON Fe - FERRUM Si - SILICIUM H - HYDROGENIUM O - OXYGENIUM D04.1.1.A._OfE_wall ORIGIN OF THE ELEMENTS AND THE LIFE-CYCLE OF STARS In the 1950s, scientists realized that stars do not shine forever, but that mass determines their evolution and how they die. Once they exhaust their nuclear fuel of hydrogen, intermediate and massive stars start fusing helium into carbon. Massive stars continue to fuse carbon and heavier elements until they die in a spectacular explosion, a supernova. During the explosion, elements heavier than iron are created and are spread throughout the cosmos. Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/O. Krause (Steward Observatory) D04.1.1.R._Sputnik wall SPUTNIK 4 OCTOBER 1957 The Soviet Union launched the Sputnik 1 satellite from the Baikonur Cosmodrome into an elliptical low-Earth orbit on 4 October 1957. The world's first artificial satellite was a 58-cm diameter polished metal sphere weighing 83 kg and could complete one orbit around the Earth in 98 minutes. Sending the first human-made object into orbit started the era of space exploration. This became a time of pioneering efforts to launch artificial satellites and space probes, and set forth the pursuit of human spaceflight beyond the realm of Earth’s gravity.This symbolic achievement kickstarted the space astronomy era. D04.2.1.A. and others_Map of galaxy FIRST MAP OF THE MILKY WAY D04.3.1._Einstein and popculture ALBERT EINSTEIN IN POP CULTURE It is challenging to imagine a personality as iconic as 20th-century physicist Albert Einstein. His special and general theories of relativity are at the foundation of modern cosmology, representing the best framework to date that explains the dynamics and the structure of the Universe. While initially received with skepticism and controversy, his work has since reached worldwide success that established him as a cultural symbol. From art, movies, theatre, gaming and merchandise, Einstein has become a superstar widely featured in products that popularise complex scientific ideas to the public. Credit: Arthur Sasse / United Press International
IAU100] Above & Beyond Exhibition Decade3 ai자료 압축파일 입니다. D03.1.A_WWII technologies WORLD WAR II TECHNOLOGIES THAT CHANGED THE WORLD ADVANCED OPTICS CONTROL SYSTEMS EARLY COMPUTERS NUCLEAR FISSION JET ENGINES RADAR ROCKETS WORLD WAR II TECHNOLOGIES THAT CHANGED THE WORLD D03.2.A._Dark times and culture WORLD WAR II TECHNOLOGIES THAT CHANGED THE WORLD ADVANCED OPTICS CONTROL SYSTEMS EARLY COMPUTERS NUCLEAR FISSION JET ENGINES RADAR ROCKETS THE DARK TIMES, COSMOS AND CULTURE During and following the dark times of the World Wars, literature and culture offered an intellectual escape and glimmer of hope. Antoine de Saint-Exupery's novella "The Little Prince" depicted the story of a little boy from a tiny asteroid who travelled between planets. This tale became one of the most iconic 20th-century pieces of literature. Work by Kenji Miyazawa ("Night on the Galactic Railroad”) also shaped the imagination of entire generations. This period is now regarded as the Golden Age of Science Fiction. Fictional journeys through the stars and visits to imaginary worlds became a vehicle to address deep, existential questions about the meaning of life, happiness, and our place in the Universe. 01 LE PETITE PRINCE, ANTOINE DE SAINT-EXUPERY 02 NIGHT ON THE GALACTIC RAILOAD, KENJI MIYAZAWA 03 LES AVENTURES DE TINTIN, 04 THE NAKED SUN, ISAAC ASIMOV Credit: 01. Fondation Antoine de Saint-Exupery, 02. Kenji Miyazawa, 03. Herge / Moulinsart, 04. Isaac Asimov / Doubleday Science Fiction WORLD WAR II TECHNOLOGIES THAT CHANGED THE WORLD THE DARK TIMES, COSMOS AND CULTURE D03.3.1._HarvardComputers HARVARD COMPUTERS Major innovations of the 19th century, including photography and spectroscopy, helped lead astronomy to evolve into astrophysics. Telescopes began generating massive quantities of observational data, which needed to be interpreted into numbers and tables for researchers to analyse. Prior to the invention of computers, all necessary calculations were performed manually. Notably, the Harvard College Observatory employed a number of women as skilled workers to process astronomical data at the turn of the 20th century. Known as “Harvard Computers”, these women analysed images and revolutionised the world of observational astronomy, supporting the birth of modern cosmology. Many went on to become distinguished scientists in their own right, including Henrietta Leavitt, Cecilia Payne-Gaposchkin and Annie Jump Cannon. Credit: Harvard University Archives Credit: Charles Reynes D03.4.1. and others_Post-war IAU THE UNITING ROLE OF THE IAU POST-WAR The first decades of the International Astronomical Union(IAU) were characterised by diplomatic cand political circumstances. After World War II, the IAU rediscovered itself diplomatic and political circumstances. After World War II, the IAU rediscovered itself in a somewhat new, uniting role: bringing together a deeply conflicted community via the means of science. In the second half of the 20th century, the astronomical community expanded significantly, with larger numbers of researchers from diverse backgrounds joining the organisation. The IAU grew from a small organisation of elite researchers to an increasingly inclusive embodiment of the global research community, including increased participation of female members, young scientists, and astronomers from minorities and developing countries. It also outgrew its initial role focussed on science, diplomacy and the naming of celestial objects, embracing new efforts in outreach, education and development. Credit: 01. & 03. International Astronomical Union, 02. American Institute of Physics SCIENCE DIPLOMACY NAMING EDUCATION OUTREACH DEVELOPMENT 01.: IAU GA ROME, 1922 02.: IAU GA ZURICH, 1948 03.: IAU GA BERKELEY, 1961
IAU100] Above & Beyond Exhibition Decade2 ai자료 압축파일 입니다. D02.1.1.R_HBML What are stars WHAT ARE STARS? Stars are glowing spheres of gas. Cecillia Payne-Gaposchkin was the first to suggest that stars are primarily made of hydrogen and helium in 1925. At a star’s centre is a dense, burning core where nuclear fusion occurs. Anticipated by Arthur Eddington in the 1920s, the nuclear process that power stars would only be fully proven in the late 1930s by Hans Bethe. STELLAR ENERGY We long wondered what makes stars shine ? Fire? Coal? To explain what fuels a star, physicists first set out to understand the structure of atoms to uncover the hidden power of nuclear reactions. Stars shine because of these reactions at their core. In 1937, the work of Hans Bethe shed light on the different ways hydrogen can fuse into helium. This meant that the origin and nature of stars was no longer a complete mystery. Further studies contributed to developing the theory of stellar nucleosynthesis, which explains how different chemical elements are forged through different nuclear fusion reactions at different stages of a star’s life-cycle. CHANDRASEKHAR LIMIT - 1,4 M Named after the Indian-American astrophysicist Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar, the Chandrasekhar limit is an important value for astronomy. He determined that a compact, evolved star (known as a white dwarf) is 1.4 times more massive than our Sun is too massive to remain stable. After this limit, the force of gravity causes the white dwarf star to collapse into a dense core remnant or even a black hole. D02.1.2.INFO and others_HBML info board (PREVIEW) HUBBLE-LEMAITRE LAW Thanks to Albert Einstein and his equations of General Relativity, we finally had the tools to study the Universe on the largest scales. Subsequent studies by Georges Lemaitre suggested that space is expanding: every point in space, for example every galaxy, grows further apart from each other as time passes. This was soon confirmed by the observations of Edwin Hubble and collaborators, who proved the expansion of the Universe in 1929. They observed that the further galaxies are, the faster they move apart. This relationship was called the "Hubble constant" and was initially estimated by Hubble at 500 km/s/Mpc*, but has since been narrowed to 73.5 km/s/Mpc at the turn of the 21st century. *A parsec is a unit used to express distances in space. One parsec is equal to 3.26 light-years. (PREVIEW) HUBBLE-LEMAITRE LAW Thanks to Albert Einstein and his equations of General Relativity, we finally had the tools to study the Universe on the largest scales. Subsequent studies by Georges Lemaitre suggested that space is expanding: every point in space, for example every galaxy, grows further apart from each other as time passes. This was soon confirmed by the observations of Edwin Hubble and collaborators, who proved the expansion of the Universe in 1929. They observed that the further galaxies are, the faster they move apart. This relationship was called Hubble law and introduced the Hubble constant, initially estimated at 500 km/s/Mpc*, since then narrowed to 73.5 km/s/Mpc at the turn of the 21st century. *A parsec (pc) is a unit used to express distances in space. One parsec is equal to 3.26 light-years. A megaparsec (Mpc) is equal to a million parsecs. D02.2.1.A._.D02.2.1.R_D02.2.2._Radioastronomy UNIVERSE IN RADIO WAVES KARL JANSKY EXPLAINING SOURCE OF RADIO EMISSION Credit: Bell Laboratories / Nokia Corporation ANTENNAS OF MEERKAT RADIO TELESCOPE WHICH IS A PRECURSOR TO THE SQUARE KILOMETRE ARRAY Credit: South African Radio Astronomy Observatory (SARAO) UNIVERSE IN RADIO WAVES RADIO ANTENNA USED BY KARL JANSKY TO DISCOVER RADIO EMISSION AT THE CENTER OF THE MILKY WAY There is more to the Universe than meets the eye. The development of radio astronomy became a key step in strengthening our toolkit for studying the Universe. In 1933, Karl Jansky was busy developing the trans-Atlantic radio telephone service when he accidentally detected radio signals coming from a distance source: the centre of the Milky Way. This lead to important developments of radio techniques, primarily during World War II, that forged our modern telecommunications landscape and opened new ways of perceiving the Universe. As a result, we have since discovered pulsars, quasars, radio galaxies, and many other extreme cosmic environments and events. Credit: Bell Laboratories / Nokia Corporation D02.3.1._The War of the Worlds THE WAR OF THE WORLDS In 1938, the radio adaptation of H.G. Wells’ book "The War of the Worlds", narrated and directed by Orson Welles, allegedly caused widespread panic in the USA. The narration convinced listeners across the country that a Martian invasion of Earth was taking place. This realistic radio dramatisation of the 1897 science fiction novel describing the alien attack was taken by some as genuine news during the tension prior to World War II. Credit: 01. Alvim Correa, 02. Chicago Herald Examiner, 03. Daily News, 04. Associated Press
IAU100] Above & Beyond Exhibition Decade1 ai자료 압축파일 입니다. D01.1.1.A_SW Hooker Telescope HOOKER TELESCOPE MT. WILSON OBSERVATORY, USA Completed in 1917, the Hooker Telescope was the largest and most precise astronomical instrument in the world for nearly three decades, leading the way for an exciting new era in stellar and extragalactic research. Observations conducted with this telescope helped astronomers prove that there is much more to the Universe than our local hub of stars in the Milky Way, which is but one of a myriad of galaxies. It has also allowed us to measure the size of the star Betelgeuse for the first time and to identify early clues for the existence of the mysterious dark matter. Even over 100 years later, this remarkable monument of observational astronomy is still used today for science outreach and by visitors who can observe the cloudless skies of California. Credit: Observatories of the Carnegie Institution for Science Collection at the Huntington Library, San Marino, California EARLY SCI-FI AND THE ANTICIPATION OF EXTRATERRESTRIAL LIFE With the onset of cinematography and radio transmission, the beginning of the 20th century brought a revolution in new forms of media. The live broadcast and the motion picture added new layers of storytelling and immersion that allowed writers, directors and producers to explore science and technology inspired futures, taking them beyond the realm of literature. 01 Das Himmelschiff [A Trip To Mars], Denmark 1919 02 Аэлита [Aelita], Soviet Union 1924 03 Algol. Tragodie der Macht [Algol: Tragedy of Power], Germany 1920 04 The Skylark of Space, USA 1915-1920 D01.1.1.R._SW external walls ABOVE AND BEYOND 1919?2019 MAKING SENSE OF THE UNIVERSE FOR 100 YEARS - HOW DO STARS FORM AND SHINE? - IS THERE LIFE ELSEWHERE IN THE UNIVERSE? - WHAT IS THE SIZE AND STRUCTURE OF THE UNIVERSE? D01.1.4.A_SW Solar Eclipse ABOVE AND BEYOND MAKING SENSE OF THE UNIVERSE FOR 100 YEARS TOTAL SOLAR ECLIPSE 29 MAY 1919 Once a total solar eclipse is witnessed, such an event cannot be forgotten. For centuries, total solar eclipses were perceived as frightening, almost mystical events. The short period during which day turns into night is a spectacle caused by the Moon blocking the Sun. A century ago, this phenomenon was used to successfully test, for the first time, a novel theoretical concept coined by Albert Einstein: the General Theory of Relativity. Two expeditions led by Eddington & Dyson (Sao Tome and Principe) and Crommelin (Sobral, Brazil) were set out to observe an eclipse in May 1919. The researchers confirmed that the light of stars around the Sun is indeed deflected due to the solar mass in the amount predicted by Einstein’s theory. Credit: Memoirs of the Royal Astronomical Society, Courtesy of the Royal Astronomical Society Library STARLIGHT REFRACTION D01.1.4.R_SW 1919 data-wall WHAT IS THE UNIVERSE? IS EARTH THE ONLY LIVING PLANET?HOW DOES THE SUN FUNCTION? WILL WE BE EVER ABLE TO TRAVEL INTO SPACE? IS EINSTEIN RIGHT? WHAT WE KNEW IN 1919 NUMBER OF INDIVIDUAL IAU MEMBERS: 207 NUMBER OF RESEARCH OBSERVATORIES AROUND THE WORLD: 100 DISTANCE OF OPTICAL OBSERVATION: 2.5 MILLION L.Y. DISTANCE INTO SPACE REACHED BY HUMAN-MADE MACHINE: 0 KM NUMBER OF KNOWN POTENTIALLY HAZARDOUS ASTEROIDS: 0 NUMBER OF KNOWN PLANETS: 8 NUMBER OF KNOWN GALAXIES: 1 1 LIGHT YEAR (L.Y.) = 9.5 TRILLION KILOMETRES DATA SOURCES: 1. INTERNATIONAL ASTRONOMICAL UNION (1922), 2. & 5. MINOR PLANET CENTER / SMITHSONIAN ASTROPHYSICAL OBSERVATORY, 3. OESH ET AL., THE ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL, 2016, 4. NASA/JPL, 6. HTTP://EXOPLANET.EU, 7. MARIO LIVIO (STSCI) IS THERE MORE THAN ONE UNIVERSE? WILL WE EVER FIND A THEORY OF EVERYTHING? WHEN WILL WE DETECT AND ENCOUNTER EXTRATERRESTRIAL LIFE? WILL HUMANITY BECOME AN INTERPLANETARY CIVILIZATION? WAS EINSTEIN WRONG? WHAT WE KNOW IN 2019 NUMBER OF INDIVIDUAL IAU MEMBERS: 12 380 NUMBER OF RESEARCH OBSERVATORIES AROUND THE WORLD: 2 099 DISTANCE OF OPTICAL OBSERVATION: ~32 BILLION L.Y. DISTANCE INTO SPACE REACHED BY HUMAN-MADE MACHINE: 21.3 BILLION KM NUMBER OF KNOWN POTENTIALLY HAZARDOUS ASTEROIDS: 1 920 NUMBER OF KNOWN PLANETS: 3 812 + 8 NUMBER OF KNOWN GALAXIES: 100?200 BILLION INFORMATION VALID FOR JULY 30TH, 2018 DATA SOURCES: 1. INTERNATIONAL ASTRONOMICAL UNION, 2. & 5. MINOR PLANET CENTER / SMITHSONIAN ASTROPHYSICAL OBSERVATORY, 3. OESH ET. AL. 2016, 4. NASA/JPL, 6. HTTP://EXOPLANET.EU, 7. MARIO LIVIO (STSCI) D01.1.5.A.A._SW The Great Debate THE GREAT DEBATE In 1920, we were still trying to figure out the cosmic order. Two astronomers, Harlow Shapley and Heber Curtis, confronted each other in an historic debate that argued the very nature of our galactic home: the Milky Way. Shapley held the opinion that the so-called ‘spiral nebulae’ (fuzzy, cloud-like objects observed in the sky) were in fact clouds belonging to our Milky Way like the Orion Nebula. Curtis instead believed the spiral nebulae are themselves galaxies like our own Milky Way, that are much further into space and thus expanding our perceived size of the Universe. While both were backed by the best scientific evidence available at the time, the debate remained unsolved for a few years. When the first measurement of the distance to one such spiral ? Andromeda ? was made, Curtis was proved right. The spiral nebulae were large, distant, independent galaxies beyond our own, in a much larger Universe. HARLOW SHAPLEY "It seems to me that the evidence is opposed to the view that the spirals are individual galaxies comparable with our own. In fact, there appears as yet no reason for modifying the tentative hypothesis that the spirals are not composed of typical stars at all, but are truly nebulous objects" Credit: Harvard University Archives NEBULA OR GALAXY? 01 FLAME NEBULA CREDIT: ESO/IDA/DANISH 1.5 M/R. GENDLER, J.-E. OVALDSEN, C. THONE AND C. FERON 02 TOBY JUB NEBULA CREDIT: ESO 03 NGC 1300 GALAXY CREDIT: NASA/ESA/HUBBLE HERITAGE TEAM (STSCI/AURA) 04 RING NEBULA CREDIT: NASA/ESA/HUBBLE HERITAGE TEAM (STSCI/AURA) 05 SOMBRERO GALAXY CREDIT: ESO 06 ESO 486-21 GALAXY CREDIT: ESA/HUBBLE & NASA HEBER CURTIS "The evidence points strongly to the conclusion that spirals are individual galaxies, or islands of galaxies, comparable with our own galaxy in dimension and in number of component units." Credit: Allegheny Observatory Records
IAU100] Above & Beyond Exhibition Decade0 ai 자료 압축파일 입니다. D00.1.1._visual opening ABOVE AND BEYOND MAKING SENSE OF THE UNIVERSE FOR 100 YEARS ABOVE AND BEYOND MAKING SENSE OF THE UNIVERSE FOR 100 YEARS A variety of remarkable achievements have taken place overy the last century. As the world recovered from the devastation of World War I, the astronomical community was on the verge of paradigm-shifting discoveries. The pillars of physics were about to evolve and the understanding of our place in the Universe would soon expand to previously unthinkable landscapes. What has always led us forward, however, was curiosity. We have long sought answers to better understand some of the most universal and existential questions of humankind. What is the size and structure of this thing we call ‘Universe’? Is there life outside of Earth? What powers the stars? How do they begin to shine and what happens when they die? Some of these questions may seem obsolete today, while others are just as open as they were a hundred years ago. As in every story of science and discovery, this was just the beginning. 1919-2019 The Above and Beyond exhibition is a modest attempt at navigating through some of the most important and spectacular achievements in modern astronomy. It is a global journey through a century of scientific and technological advancements and an era of inspiration that expanded social boundaries and spurred imagination. The exhibition celebrates a century’s work of research and discovery by making sense of this fascinating and mysterious home of ours, the Universe. The exhibition has been created in the framework of the International Astronomical Union’s 100th anniversary (1919-2019). WWW.IAU.ORG/100 ABOVE AND BEYOND MAKING SENSE OF THE UNIVERSE FOR 100 YEARS EXHIBITION CREATED IN PARTNERSHIP BETWEEN INTERNATIONAL ASTRONOMICAL UNION AND SCIENCE NOW WWW.IAU.ORG/100 WWW.SCIENCENOW.STUDIO CREDITS EXECUTIVE PRODUCERS : Ewine van Dishoeck (Leiden University, IAU), Jan Pomierny (Science Now), Pedro Russo (Leiden University, IAU) EDITING : Claudia Mignone, Bethany Downer PRODUCER : Łukasz Alwast (Science Now) VISUAL DESIGN : Lena Mitek (leniva fullmetal agency), Janek Mo?ka (leniva fullmetal agency), Neon Neonov (leniva fullmetal agency) IAU100 COORDINATOR : Jorge Rivero Gonzalez (Leiden University, IAU) CREATIVE CONCEPT : Łukasz Alwast (Science Now), Karolina Panasiuk (Science Now), Jan Pomierny (Science Now) ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN : MADE Studio PRODUCTION SUPPORT : Joanna Trytek (Black Salt) PRODUCTION : Ryszard Zalewski (MONT-EXPO) CONTENT DEVELOPMENT : Łukasz Alwast (Science Now), Kamil Deresz (Science Now), Ewine van Dishoeck (Leiden University, IAU), Jorge Rivero Gonzalez (Leiden University, IAU), Jan Pomierny (Science Now), Milena Ratajczak (Science Now), Pedro Russo (Leiden University, IAU) SPECIAL THANKS : Michele Armano, David Baneke, Piero Benvenuti, Lars Lindberg Christensen, Maria Rosaria D’Antonio, Gerhard Hensler, Werner Z. Zellinger CONTENT SUPPORT : Jarle Brinchmann, Dirk van Delft, Henk Hoekstra, Maksymilian Manko, Claudia Mignone , Frans Snik IAU Commission C3 Members IAU Division Presidents IAU Executive Committee Members IAU 100 Years Task Force Members WITH CONTRIBUTIONS FROM : European Southern Observatory, European Space Agency, Harvard University, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency , Jet Propulsion Lab, Leiden University, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Roscosmos, Royal Astronomical Society, Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory , South African Radio Astronomy Observatory , The World At Night ABOVE AND BEYOND MAKING SENSE OF THE UNIVERSE FOR 100 YEARS WHAT IS THE SIZE AND STRUCTURE OF THE UNIVERSE? For centuries, we were only capable of perceiving the world through the lens of the human eye. This was later aided by increasingly elaborate, but fundamentally simple, instruments. As technology advanced, our understanding of the natural world became sharper and deeper, and our eyes opened even more. With scientific results being made accessible to larger groups of people, everyone could look into the depths of the Solar System, our Galaxy and the Universe as we know it. We began to understand more about how extensive the cosmos truly is and what it is made of. WHAT IS THE SIZE AND STRUCTURE OF THE UNIVERSE? HOW DO STARS FORM AND SHINE? Looking up into the sky, we have always found inspiration in our daily companion and source of life, the Sun. Although special to us, we have learned that it is just one of billions that sparkle in the night sky. Discovering what stars like our Sun are made of and what causes them to shine was no easy task. We have also learned about the evolution of stars and how their death can create supernova explosions that lead to the formation of black holes. This includes the life-cycle of stars, leading to our understanding of the processes that creates the elements, which we are all made of. HOW DO STARS FORM AND SHINE? IS THERE LIFE ELSEWHERE IN THE UNIVERSE? Life has flourished here on Earth but we are still uncertain of its true origins Are we alone in the Universe? Will we ever discover and experience extraterrestrial forms of life? These questions have kept philosophers, scientists and science-fiction writers busy for centuries. However, throughout the past 100 years we began approaching these questions in a more tangible manner. With pioneering research in the scientific community and endless speculations unravelling in the domains of cinema, literature and media, we have pushed ourselves towards new frontiers that question our place and future in the Universe. IS THERE LIFE ELSEWHERE IN THE UNIVERSE? ABOVE AND BEYOND MAKING SENSE OF THE UNIVERSE FOR 100 YEARS D00.1.1._visual opening ABOVE AND BEYOND MAKING SENSE OF THE UNIVERSE FOR 100 YEARS
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