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IAU, 모두의 밤하늘 100년
국제천문연맹(IAU) 창설 100주년을 기념하는 다양한 정보와 자료를 공유하는 게시판
  • 2019년은 국제천문연맹(IAU, International Astronomical Union)이 창설된지 100년이 되는 해입니다.
  • 대한민국 임시정부가 수립되었던 1919년, 전 세계 79개국 12,000명의 회원으로 시작한 국제천문연맹은 지난 1세기 동안 수 많은 천문학적인 발견과 과학적 지식을 전 인류에게 확산하는 성과를 이루었습니다.
  • IAU100 사이트는 국제천문연맹 창설 100주년을 기념하기 위한 다양한 자료과 정보를 공유하기 위해 만들어졌으며, 이를 통해 많은 시민들과 학생들, 학자들이 인류의 유산이라 할 수있는 천문학적 발견의 즐거움을 나누고자 합니다.

IAU자료실

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IAU 영문로고 (블랙, 화이트) 이미지
IAU 영문로고 (블랙, 화이트) 입니다. IAU - 100 Years : Under One Sky
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IAU100] Above & Beyond Exhibition Decade11 ai자료 압축파일 입니다. D11.1.1 What is the size and structure of the Universe? Today we understand the Universe to be an immensely complex structure, which is home to hundreds of billions of galaxies that each contain billions of stars and planets. The tools we have today are orders of magnitude more powerful and precise than the best facilities available at the beginning of the 20th century. We can now peer into the far reaches of the observable Universe as well as look back into its origins. However, there is much that we still do not yet understand. What is dark matter composed of? What is the true nature of dark energy? What intricate mysteries of the Universe can be uncovered by gravitational waves and other multi-messenger probes? Is there more than one Universe or do we indeed live in a Multiverse? These and many other exciting questions await to be tackled by the next generation of astronomers. D11.2.1 How do stars form and shine? Stars are some of the most magnificent objects in the Universe. Research during ?the 20th century revealed what stars are made of and what makes them shine, allowing us to investigate how they evolve. By studying the stars, we have developed a better understanding of how the elements are created, but there remains much more to be discovered. What really happens in the early stages of star formation? How do planetary systems form and what controls their architecture? How do the cores of mature stars rotate and how much do newly-formed elements mix? Where are proton-rich isotopes formed? The next century of astronomical research holds many mysteries and exciting revelations. D11.3.1 Is there life elsewhere in the Universe? Unlike popular belief at the beginning of the century, we now have strong evidence that the conditions for life to arise do exist in some form beyond Earth itself. Perhaps life is hidden deep beneath the surface of Mars, in the underground oceans of some of Jupiter's and Saturn's moons, or elsewhere. Recent space missions are bringing us closer to verifying this hypothesis, opening a potentially new chapter in the history of humankind. We have also set our eyes on Mars, with prospects to send a human mission to the Red Planet in the coming decades. Is that all? Can we expect some form of extraterrestrial contact from outside of our Solar System? Will we ever develop tools so powerful to unambiguously detect the presence of life on exoplanets? The future might surprise us in unexpected ways.
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IAU100] Above & Beyond Exhibition Decade10 ai자료 압축파일 입니다. D10.1.1.A._SW Gravitational waves Astronomy and the public Astronomy is one of the most inspiring and engaging sciences for the greater public. In 2009, hundreds of millions of people engaged with astronomy during the UN's International Year of Astronomy. As part of a long-standing tradition, non-experts have been contributing significantly to astronomical research, ranging from the involvement of amateur astronomers to citizen-science programmes. This is a multicultural, active and knowledgeable global community. Although we all see the sky from slightly different perspectives, stargazing is the one of the most unique and transformative activities one can imagine. The night sky is an astronomer's laboratory and it connects us all to our common origins. Gravitational waves One of the key theoretical predictions of general relativity ? that accelerated massive objects produce waves in the very fabric of spacetime ? was finally proven about one hundred years later. In 2015, lasers in two detectors of the LIGO experiment independently recorded fluctuations that did not originate from anywhere on Earth. These signals had a common source: the collapse of two black holes, each as massive as 30 Suns, located roughly 1.4 billion light years away and coalescing into an even larger monster. The spacetime vibrations lasted less than half a second, but this was more than enough time to match their forms to a patterns library and to deduce the mass and distances of the black holes. This first detection enabled the use of gravitational waves as an observational tool for astronomy and cosmology in parallel to electromagnetic radiation. This opened a new scientific window for studying the Universe with more ongoing and planned projects on Earth and the development of an observatory in space. Spiral dance of black holes Credits: 01. TWAN/Babak Tafreshi, 02. Naveen Nanjundappa/She is as Astronomer, 03. ESO, 04. Mariusz Słonina / mariusz-slonina.pl 05. LIGO/T. Pyle, 06. C. Henze/NASA Ames Research Center, 07. ESA/C. Carreau, 08. Caltech/MIT/LIGO Lab LIGO Livingston observatory D10.1.2.A._SW Space missions Solar system missions Our persistent motivation to investigate the Universe, to understand our cosmic origins and to find extraterrestrial life pulls us to pursue continuously new research. We have been permanently present at low-Earth orbit for the past couple of decades thanks to the collaborative effort of many nations. We have sent crewless probes to different corners of the Solar System to answer questions about the origin of life and how it could have formed, billions years ago. In these adventurous missions,we probed the atmosphere of Saturn’s moon Titan, visited a comet and collected samples from an asteroid. Our messengers have also flown by the eerie mountains of distant Pluto and observed the largest planets and moons in the Solar System. Credits: NASA/Crew of STS-132 NASA NASA/Tracy Caldwell Dyson NASA/JHUAPL/SwRI NASA/JPL-Caltech/SSI ESA/NASA/JPL/University of Arizona NASA/JPL-Caltech/University of Arizona/University of Idaho Shinki Ikeda/MEF/JAXA ISAS JAXA, U. of Tokyo, Kochi U., Rikkyo U., Nagoya U., Chiba Institute of Technology, Meiji U., Aizu U., AIST ESA/Rosetta/Philae/CIVA ESA/Rosetta/NAVCAM NASA NASA/Crew of STS-91 NASA/JPL-Caltech Caltech/SwRI/MSSS/Gerald Eichstadt/Sean Doran NASA/JPL-Caltech/SwRI/MSSS/Gerald Eichstadt/ Sean Doran International Space Station 1998- New Horizons 2006- Mir 1986-2001 juno 2011- Cassini 1997-2017 Hayabusa 1 & 2 2003 Rosetta 2004-2016 ExoMars 2016- DAWN 2007- Curiosity 2011- BepiColombo 2018- OSIRIS-REx 2016- Europa Clipper 2022- D10.1.3.A._SW Worldwide collaborations Worldwide collaborations International collaboration has supported the most successful observational astronomy projects. The Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) is a paramount example of a worldwide collaboration between Europe, East Asia and North America in partnership with Chile. It is now the most ambitious radio observatory on Earth consisting of 66 antennas located in northern Chile. Looking ahead, the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is currently scheduled for launch in 2021 and is a joint effort between North America and Europe. Organisations, engineers and scientists from around the world are also working together on the Square Kilometre Array: the world’s largest radio telescope that will eventually cover a collecting area of over one square kilometre. Collaborations such as these will open new, deeper and sharper windows to continue making sense of the Universe in the next decades. ALMA antennas Credit: ESO/B. Tafreshi Square Kilometer Array telescope Credit: SKA/Mathieu Isidro James Webb Space Telescope Credit: NASA/Desiree Stover D10.1.5._SW Infrastructure table Transformative infrastructure Expanding the knowledge about the Universe brings people from all around the world to work together to uncover its riddles. Increasingly sophisticated studies require stronger tools, including advanced telescopes, which today are multi-continental, large scale infrastructural projects. Those tools are by an order of magnitude more powerful and complicated than those available at the begining of the century, offering us a deeper and more meaningful way of studying the Universe. Credits : 1. Thirty Meter Telescope / Credit : TMT International Observatory 2. Large Synoptic Survey Telescope / Credit: LSST Proejct/NSF/AURA 3. Gran Telescopio Canarias / Credit : Gran Telescopio de Canarias 4. Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope / Credit : NCRA-TIFR 5. Cherenkov Telescope Array / Credit : Gabriel Perez Diaz, IAC 6. Keck observatory / Credit : Ethan Tweedie Photography/W.M.Keck Observatory 7. Giant Magallan Telescope / Credit : Giant Magellan Telescope Organization 8. Five hundred meter aperture spherical Telescope / Credit : Reuters/Stringer 9. The Southern African Large Telescope / Credit : Wynand Basson Images 10. Chandra X-Ray Observatory / Credit : NASA / Harvard University 11. Very Large Telescope / Credit : ESO/G. Hudepohl 12. Kepler / Credit : NASA 13. Hobby-Eberly Telescope / Credit : University of Texas HOOKER TELESCOPE Year : 1917 Mirror Size : 2.5 M Height : 30.5M SUBARU TELESCOPE Year : 1999 Mirror size : 8.3M Height : 43 M EXTREMELY LARGE TELESCOPE Year : 2024 Mirror size : 39.3 M Height : 74 M
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IAU자료실 IAU100] 특별전시자료 Decade9 2019-01-16
IAU100] Above & Beyond Exhibition Decade9 ai자료 압축파일 입니다. D09.3.1._Reclassification of Pluto RECLASSIFICATION OF PLUTO Discovered in 1930, Pluto was considered the ninth and most distant planet of our Solar System for more than 70 years. However, after discovering objects of similar size, its status as a planet was widely questioned. Members of the IAU who gathered at the 26th General Assembly in 2006 in Prague (Czech Republic) agreed on a new definition of planet: an object that is in orbit around the Sun, has a spherical shape and has cleared the neighbourhood around its orbit. As a consequence, this resolution reclassified Pluto as a dwarf planet. The discussion around redefinition has attracted much interest and triggered discussions among the scientific community and the general public alike. NEW HORIZONS IMAGE OF PLUTO Credit: NASA/JHUAPL/SWRI D09.3.1._Reclassification of Pluto(1) RECLASSIFICATION OF PLUTO Discovered in 1930, Pluto was considered the ninth and most distant planet of our Solar System for more than 70 years. However, after discovering objects of similar size, its status as a planet was widely questioned. Members of the IAU who gathered at the 26th General Assembly in 2006 in Prague (Czech Republic) agreed on a new definition of planet: an object that is in orbit around the Sun, has a spherical shape and has cleared the neighbourhood around its orbit. As a consequence, this resolution reclassified Pluto as a dwarf planet. The discussion around redefinition has attracted much interest and triggered discussions among the scientific community and the general public alike. NEW HORIZONS IMAGE OF PLUTO Credit: NASA/JHUAPL/SWRI
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IAU자료실 IAU100] 특별전시자료 Decade8 2019-01-16
IAU100] Above & Beyond Exhibition Decade8 ai자료 압축파일 입니다. D08.1.1.A._DarkUniverse Credit: NASA/W. Liller HALLEY’S COMET DARK UNIVERSE NORMAL MATTER 5% One of the most surprising discoveries of the last century is that normal matter, which makes up the stars, planets, and all living things, amounts to less than 5% of the Universe. In the 1970s and 1980s, a number of observations revealed that the mass of observed normal matter in the Universe was insufficient to explain the existing forces of gravity within and between galaxies. Stars on the outskirts of galaxies move much faster than what would result from the attraction of the observed matter alone. Furthermore, the CMBR provides support for the concept of a special form of matter that does not interact with light, only via gravity with other matter. Today however, the nature of dark matter remains undetected, and thus remains one of the most profound riddles for astronomy and physics. SCHEMATIC OF HALLEY ARMADA DARK ENERGY 70% DARK MATTER 25% D08.1.2.R.pdf_Galaxy evolution wall MARS ROVERS 1997: PATHFINDER 2004: SPIRIT 2004: OPPORTUNITY 2012: CURIOSITY GALAXY EVOLUTION RESULTS OF THE MILLENNIUM SIMULATION RUN DEPICTING DARK MATTER DISTRIBUTION, COMPARED WITH GALAXY CLUSTER GRAVITATIONAL LENS OBSERVATIONS Credit: Springel et al., 2005/NASA/ESA/Hubble SM4 ERO Team/ST-ECF COMPARISON OF SIMULATED GALAXY AND M74 Credit: University of Zurich, NASA BLACK HOLE IN THE CENTRE OF THE GALAXY SIMULATION SHOWING THE ORBITS OF STARS VERY CLOSE TO THE SUPERMASSIVE BLACK HOLE IN THE CENTRE OF MILKY WAY Credits: ESO/L. Calcada/spaceengine.org The existence of black holes was only theorised until the discovery of X-rays from the Cygnus X-1 source in 1964. These mysterious and massive objects are so dense that even light cannot escape their gravity. In 2002, two international teams led by Reinhard Genzel and Andrea Ghez reported the observation of the motion of S2, a star orbiting the centre of our Milky Way and Sagittarius A*, a powerful source of radio waves lurking in the area. This star, the first to be observed completing a full orbit around the Galactic Centre, proved that our galaxy also has a central supermassive black hole (which we now believe to be present at the centre of most galaxies). D08.1.3.A_Hubble Deep Field (ceiling) HUBBLE ULTRA DEEP FIELD 2004 D08.2.1._Exoplanets cubicle DISCOVERY OF FIRST EXOPLANETS 3 812* EXOPLANET ONLY CONFIRMED AFTER THE DISCOVERY UNKNOWN SIZE (RADIUS) OF THE EXOPLANET KNOWN APPROXIMATE SIZE OF THE EXOPLANET OUR SOLAR SYSTEM EXOPLANETS IN THE CONSERVATIVE HABITABLE ZONE *DATA VALID FOR JULY 30TH, 2018 D08.3.1._Astronomy on Earth ASTRONOMY IN EVERYDAY LIFE Decades of technological spin-offs and cross-talk between astronomy and industry led to the development of personal computers, communication satellites, mobile phones, WiFi, Global Positioning Systems (GPS), solar panels and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) scanners. Increases in computing and telecommunications towards the end of the 20th century meant that ordinary computers could handle calculations that a few decades earlier required some of the world's largest supercomputers. Equally significant was the launch of the Internet. This enabled astronomy to become one of the most open among scientific disciplines, with the global community of researchers sharing data, results and practices, and astronomy enthusiasts contributing via a variety of widely distributed citizen-science projects, ranging from the classic 1990s SETI@home to the more recent Galaxy Zoo and Planet Hunters. GAMMA-RAY SPECTROMETERS GLOBAL POSITIONING SYSTEMS (GPS) SOLAR RADIATION COLLECTORS SUPERCOMPUTERS SYNTHESIS IMAGING TOMOGRAPHY WIRELESS LOCAL AREA NETWORKS (WI-FI) D08.4.1._Pale Blue Dot PALE BLUE DOT What does Earth look like from afar? To answer this question, scientists in 1990 decided to use the cameras of Voyager 1 to capture a series of images of the Solar System before being turned off. This “Family Portrait” of our cosmic ‘neck of the woods’ consists of a total of 60 frames, combined in a memorable mosaic of the Solar System, and is shot from a distance of more than 6 billion kilometres from Earth. Prompted by a suggestion from Carl Sagan, this distant snapshot of Earth became known as the iconic “Pale Blue Dot”, by revealing our planet as a mere speck of light against the vast darkness of space. Credits: NASA
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IAU자료실 IAU100] 특별전시자료 Decade7 2019-01-11
IAU100] Above & Beyond Exhibition Decade7 ai자료 압축파일 입니다. D07.1.1._Supemova 1987A SUPERNOVA 1987A In February 1987, a flash appeared in the southern night sky. Located 168 000 light-years from Earth in a nearby galaxy called the Large Magellanic Cloud, it was the 1987A Supernova. This flash was caused by a massive star ending its life in a spectacular explosion. It was the brightest phenomenon of this nature to be observed in our cosmic vicinity for centuries and was even visible to the naked eye for several months. This observation helped push forward our understanding of the evolution of stars. Credit: NASA/ESA, R. Kirshner, M. Mutchler, R. Avila D07.2.1._Halley's cubicle HALLEY’S COMET For millennia, we have feared comets as objects of destruction, until astronomical observations and celestial mechanics in the 17th century clarified the nature of these cosmic wanderers. In 1986, the Giotto spacecraft flew within 600 kilometers of Comet Halley and revealed for the first time how the nucleus of a comet looks up close: very black due to organic material. Recent research suggests that these icy relics of our Solar System’s formation may have contributed to bringing water and other molecules to our planet, including the building blocks of life. Credit: Halley Multicolor Camera Team, Giotto Project, ESA D07.3.1._Communicating with the public COMMUNICATING ASTRONOMY WITH THE PUBLIC 01 CARL SAGAN 02 STEPHEN HAWKING Today, it is hard to imagine astronomical outreach without public lectures, books, TV shows and a multitude of online materials. However, this material was not always so plentiful. It is thanks to the efforts of exceptional scientists around the world who were active as science communicators, such as Carl Sagan and Stephen Hawking, that astronomy and physics reached their current status in modern media and culture. Their seminal works include Sagan’s 1980 book and TV series “Cosmos” and Hawking’s 1988 book, “A Brief History of Time”, which both played a key role in communicating complex topics to the public in an approachable, yet inspiring and entertaining way. Credits: 01. Cosmos / Carl Sagan, 02. Cambridge University
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IAU100] Above & Beyond Exhibition Decade6 ai자료 압축파일 입니다. Decade 6은 자료가 많아 6-1과 6-2로 나누어 업로드 합니다. 6-2는 2개의 파일입니다. D06.F01_Moon-foot D06.2.1.A and others_Moon landing extemal 1 MOON LANDING 1969 "WE CHOOSE TO GO TO THE MOON IN THIS DECADE AND DO THE OTHER THINGS, NOT BECAUSE THEY ARE EASY, BUT BECAUSE THEY ARE HARD!" - JOHN F. KENNEDY Credit: NASA, Johnson Space Center, Project Apollo Archive
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IAU100] Above & Beyond Exhibition Decade6 ai자료 압축파일 입니다. Decade 6은 자료가 많아 6-1과 6-2로 업로드 합니다. D06.1.1.R_Interstellar medium HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE VIEW ON PILLARS OF CREATION Credit: NASA, ESA, Hubble Heritage Team (STScI/AURA) INTERSTELLAR MEDIUM The space between stars is not empty, as it also contains a mixture of gas and dust. Known as the interstellar medium (ISM), it plays a crucial role in the formation of stars and their evolution. The ISM provides the raw material from which stars are born and to which they return their elements after their demise. The necessary building blocks of life, such as water and complex molecules (including those that are carbon-based) have all been found in the ISM. While many observational and theoretical steps have been made to understand this interstellar mixture, many aspects of its complex physics and chemistry still remain a mystery to researchers, while its snapshots make for some of the most spectacular images of the Universe. ALMA IMAGE OF THE PROTOPLANETARY DISC AROUND YOUNG STAR HL TAURI Credit: ALMA (ESO/NAOJ/NRAO) HERSCHEL SPACE OBSERVATORY VIEW OF NEW STARS AND MOLECULAR CLOUDS Credit: ESA/Herschel/NASA/JPL-Caltech; R. Hurt (JPL-Caltech) D06.1.2.R. and others_Understanding the Sun UNDERSTANDING THE SUN Despite its constant presence in our sky, the Sun has posed long-standing mysteries. This includes its structure to its inner workings and its very nature. A certain type of sub-atomic particle, called the neutrino, is of particular interest to researchers and is continually produced in large numbers in a star’s interior. Since monitoring began in the 1960’s, the number of observed neutrinos did not match the predictions from theory. This conundrum was known as the solar neutrino problem, highlighted by John Bahcall. Addressed with the groundbreaking results from the Homestake experiment led by Raymond Davis, and later confirmed by Japan's Super-Kamiokande detector led by Masatoshi Koshiba, the mystery was finally solved. Neutrinos were characterised and better understood by how they can oscillate between different states along their journey from the Sun to us. Credit: Sun in ultraviolet light / NASA/SDO UNDERSTANDING THE SUN In the 1960s, we discovered that the Sun pulsates, breathing in and out. This is a phenomenon known as solar oscillations, which gave rise to a new domain of research and study of the Sun called helioseismology. This area would later branch out to asteroseismology: the study of oscillations of stars other than the Sun. Credit: Pulsating star / Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research 01 HMI DOPPLERGRAM SURFACE MOVEMENT PHOTOSPHERE 02 HMI MAGNETOGRAM MAGNETIC FIELD POLARITY PHOTOSPHERE 03 HMI CONTINUUM MATCHES VISIBLE LIGHT PHOTOSPHERE 04 AIA 1700 PHOTOSPHERE 05 AIA 4500 PHOTOSPHERE 06 AIA 1600 UPPER PHOTOSPHERE / TRANSITION REGION 07 AIA 304 TRANSITION REGION / CHROMOSPHERE 08 AIA 171 UPPER TRANSITION REGION / QUIET CORONA 09 AIA 171 CORONA / FLARE PLASMA UNDERSTANDING THE SUN Today we observe sunlight far beyond the ranges visible to the naked eye by studying the Sun in many different wavelengths, from radio waves to X-rays. Much of this radiation is absorbed by Earth’s atmosphere, which made the space age instrumental to opening this new observational window. Credit: Sun in different wavelengths / NASA/SDO/Goddard Space Flight Center 10 AIA 211 ACTIVE REGIONS 11 AIA 335 ACTIVE REGIONS 12 AIA 094 FLARING REGIONS 13 AIA 131 FLARING REGIONS D06.1.4.A._Space and popculture SPACE INSPIRES POP CULTURE HAL 9000 A.I. MASTERMIND - 2001: A SPACE ODYSSEY SPACE STATION V GRAVITATIONAL ACCELERATION - 2001: A SPACE ODYSSEY SOLARIS STATION SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH STATION - SOLARIS SOLARIS PLANET-ENCOMPASSING ORGANISM - SOLARIS U.S.S. ENTREPRISE INTERPLANETARY SPACECRAFT - STAR TREK Space in pop culture hit its renaissance in the 1960s and 1970s. The nascent development of computer-assisted graphics empowered visionary filmmakers to create iconic works. Ranging from Stanley Kubrick’s 2001:A Space Odyssey to Andrei Tarkowski’s Solaris, the Star Trek series and the Star Wars saga, pop culture was never the same again. Millions of viewers would be exposed and inspired by ideas that would take years to prove scientifically, such as exoplanets or binary stars. As a result, many of today’s scientists, engineers and astrophysicists say they went into their line of work because they watched those films when they were young. TATOOINE PLANET AROUND A BINARY STAR SYSTEM - STAR WARS D06.1.4.A._Space and popculture2 SPACE INSPIRES POP CULTURE HAL 9000 A.I. MASTERMIND - 2001: A SPACE ODYSSEY SPACE STATION V GRAVITATIONAL ACCELERATION - 2001: A SPACE ODYSSEY SOLARIS STATION SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH STATION - SOLARIS SOLARIS PLANET-ENCOMPASSING ORGANISM - SOLARIS U.S.S. ENTREPRISE INTERPLANETARY SPACECRAFT - STAR TREK Space in pop culture hit its renaissance in the 1960s and 1970s. The nascent development of computer-assisted graphics empowered visionary filmmakers to create iconic works. Ranging from Stanley Kubrick’s 2001:A Space Odyssey to Andrei Tarkowski’s Solaris, the Star Trek series and the Star Wars saga, pop culture was never the same again. Millions of viewers would be exposed and inspired by ideas that would take years to prove scientifically, such as exoplanets or binary stars. As a result, many of today’s scientists, engineers and astrophysicists say they went into their line of work because they watched those films when they were young. TATOOINE PLANET AROUND A BINARY STAR SYSTEM - STAR WARS CULTURE INSPIRED BY SPACE ABORIGINAL ART SEVEN SISTERS DREAMING - Credit: Gabriella Possum MILKY WAY DREAMING - Credit: Rex Winston Walford Astronomy and space always had a strong influence on cultures across the world. Ancient civilisations on every continent, from Native Americans and Maya to ancient Egyptians, Greeks and Chinese, from Mesopotamians to Aboriginal Australians and Polynesians, all relied heavily on referencing the skies and linking the human experience to a broader cosmic dimension. Following this time-honoured tradition, the progress in 20th-century astronomy and the onset of the space age have been no less a source of awe and inspiration for a wide variety of cultural endeavours, ranging from Spanish surrealism and Socialist realism to Afrofuturism and Japanese manga. ARABIC ART ASTRONAUT -Credit: Raed Al Fada TWO PEOPLE IN SPACE OUTFITS - Credit: Abdel Hadi El-Gazzar THE LEBANESE ROCKET SOCIETY - Credit: Sodas Pictures AFROFUTURISM #MAASCI - Credit: Jacque Njeri IN THE ORBIT OF RA - Credit: SunRa SOCIALIST REALISM IN THE NAME OF PEACE -Credit: Irakli Toidze SPACE ART - Credit: Tekhnika Molodezhi SPANISH SURREALISM WOMAN, BIRDS, MOON -Credit: Joan Miro THE RED SUN AND GREEN MOON - Credit: Joan Miro JAPANESE MANGA SPACE BATTLESHIP YAMATO - Credit: Sumikai KNIGHTS OF SIDONIA - Credit: Tsutomu Nihei
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IAU자료실 IAU100] 특별전시자료 Decade5 2019-01-11
IAU100] Above & Beyond Exhibition Decade5 ai자료 압축파일 입니다. D05.1.1.A and other Probes PIONEER The Pioneer programme began in the late 1950s with a series of space probes to study the Moon. As ambition grew, the subsequent spacecraft were set on interplanetary journeys to explore the inner Solar System. Arguably, the most memorable were Pioneer 10 and 11. Launched in the early 1970s, these flyby missions to Jupiter and Saturn provided the first close-up views of the giant gaseous planets. Both missions carried golden plaques featuring a pictorial message designed to carry information about humankind to possible extraterrestrial species. The programme concluded in 1978 with two missions to Venus to explore its atmosphere and surface. Credits:01., 02. & 04. NASA, 03. & 05. NASA Ames Research Center D05.1.1.R._CMBR COSMIC MICROWAVE BACKGROUND RADIATION(CMBR) 1965 : PENZIAS AND WILSON 1992: COBE 2010: WMAP 2013: PLANCK A relic from the Big Bang, known as the Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation (CMBR), is a reminder from a distant past when there were no stars or galaxies; only a cosmic soup of light and matter particles existed. The CMBR dates back to when matter and light parted ways, or ‘decoupled’, when the Universe was only 400 000 years old. It was discovered accidentally in 1964, when Arno Penzias and Robert Wilson were testing the Horn Antenna at Bell Labs in New Jersey, USA. The CMBR supports the Big Bang theory as the best way to explain the origin of our cosmos and has been studied with increasingly advanced tools and precision since its discovery. WILKINSON MICROWAVE ANISOTROPY PROBE (WMAP) Credit: NASA/WMAP Science Team D05.1.2.R._PULSARS PULSARS In 1967, while making typical radio observations of the night sky as part of her graduate studies at Cambridge, Jocelyn Bell Burnell detected a strange and previously unseen signal. She later discovered that the signal was 'pulsing' with great regularity, roughly at the rate of one pulse every 1.3 seconds. Along with her advisor Antony Hewish, they dubbed the signal ‘LGM-1’ for ‘Little Green Man 1’ as a humorous reference to one of the many possibilities that could explain such a bizarre signal ? extraterrestrial life. Soon after, Thomas Gold proposed that this type of signal could only be emitted by a rapidly spinning neutron star. Although this theory was not immediately accepted, it became widely recognised after extensive studies of the pulsar in the centre of the Crab Nebula. Today, pulsars are a valuable tool in astronomy, as they are used to detect gravitational waves and are also the most accurate clocks in the Universe. PSR B1919+21 20 MS COMPOSITION OF RADIO SIGNAL FROM THE PULSAR CP 1919 Credit: J. P. Ostriker, Scientific American, 1971 D05.2.1._Black Holes BLACK HOLES Today, the term “black hole” is fairly mainstream: we read it in news headlines and it is frequently featured in comics, films, music and all sorts of commercial products. Interestingly, it was used for the first time in a print publication roughly fifty years ago, by science journalist Ann Ewing in January 1964. Black holes are regions of space where mass is concentrated so densely that its extreme gravitational force allows nothing, not even light, to escape. They form when very massive stars - with more than 20 times the mass of the Sun - collapse at the end of their life cycle, and may grow even more massive by collecting mass from their surroundings. There are also supermassive black holes, with masses millions to billions that of our Sun, which are found at the centre of large galaxies. Credit: ESO/L. Calcada/spaceengine.org D05.3.1._Computerisation REVOLUTION IN COMPUTERISATION Advances in computing and software development have had a significant effect on astronomy, providing astronomers with a powerful toolkit to decode the complex phenomena that shape the Universe. In the early 1950s, roughly half the cycles of John von Neumann's pioneering MANIAC computer were devoted to running the first codes to study stellar evolution. Later, in the 1960s, more advanced computers allowed the first detailed models of supernova explosions. Because the field of astronomy depends heavily on large quantities of data and complex modelling, it has always been at the forefront of high-performance computing. 120 YEARS OF MOORE'S LAW
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IAU자료실 IAU100] 특별전시자료 Decade4 2019-01-11
IAU100] Above & Beyond Exhibition Decade4 ai자료 압축파일 입니다. D04.1.1.A._OfE_elements Ne - NEON Fe - FERRUM Si - SILICIUM H - HYDROGENIUM O - OXYGENIUM D04.1.1.A._OfE_wall ORIGIN OF THE ELEMENTS AND THE LIFE-CYCLE OF STARS In the 1950s, scientists realized that stars do not shine forever, but that mass determines their evolution and how they die. Once they exhaust their nuclear fuel of hydrogen, intermediate and massive stars start fusing helium into carbon. Massive stars continue to fuse carbon and heavier elements until they die in a spectacular explosion, a supernova. During the explosion, elements heavier than iron are created and are spread throughout the cosmos. Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/O. Krause (Steward Observatory) D04.1.1.R._Sputnik wall SPUTNIK 4 OCTOBER 1957 The Soviet Union launched the Sputnik 1 satellite from the Baikonur Cosmodrome into an elliptical low-Earth orbit on 4 October 1957. The world's first artificial satellite was a 58-cm diameter polished metal sphere weighing 83 kg and could complete one orbit around the Earth in 98 minutes. Sending the first human-made object into orbit started the era of space exploration. This became a time of pioneering efforts to launch artificial satellites and space probes, and set forth the pursuit of human spaceflight beyond the realm of Earth’s gravity.This symbolic achievement kickstarted the space astronomy era. D04.2.1.A. and others_Map of galaxy FIRST MAP OF THE MILKY WAY D04.3.1._Einstein and popculture ALBERT EINSTEIN IN POP CULTURE It is challenging to imagine a personality as iconic as 20th-century physicist Albert Einstein. His special and general theories of relativity are at the foundation of modern cosmology, representing the best framework to date that explains the dynamics and the structure of the Universe. While initially received with skepticism and controversy, his work has since reached worldwide success that established him as a cultural symbol. From art, movies, theatre, gaming and merchandise, Einstein has become a superstar widely featured in products that popularise complex scientific ideas to the public. Credit: Arthur Sasse / United Press International
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